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Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

Potamitis I, Rigakis I, Fysarakis K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible.We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means.Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Music Technology & Acoustics, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, E. Daskalaki Perivolia, 74100, Rethymno Crete, Greece.

ABSTRACT
Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spectra of 20 different cases of B. oleae optoacoustic, in-flight recordings.
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pone.0140474.g010: Spectra of 20 different cases of B. oleae optoacoustic, in-flight recordings.

Mentions: The trap carries a photodiodes array sensor identical to the one used to record the reference patterns in the laboratory (as depicted in Fig 5). The identicalness of the sensors is essential in order to ensure that the sensors will not induce mismatch between wingbeats recorded in the lab (see Fig 10) that serve as prototypes and recordings of the unknown, entering insect. The emitters are placed in a dark plastic thin container in order to be held aligned opposite to the receivers. The same type of containers provide shade to the optical receivers. Environmental light and reflections must be attenuated as much as possible allowing mostly emitters’ light to reach the receptors. It is important to avoid physical light coming from outside the trap to act as an emitter as then insects inside the trap may modulate physical light and give false measurements. The electronics are placed as an independent add-on, attached to the plastic top of the trap, so that we effect minimal disturbance of the internal space of the trap (see Fig 11, S30–S35 Figs and S3 Video). It is our effort that the insects sense a typical McPhail type trap, as the literature has tested extensively insects’ response to it. There is an intentional gap between the border of the inner entrance of the inverted funnel and the support of the sensors (see Fig 12). Video recordings of traps in the field as well in the laboratory have shown that B. oleae enters the trap either by flying or by landing on the outside of the trap and walks up through the outer entrance of the inverted funnel to the inner entrance following the chemical signals emerging from the entrance. Then, in the vast majority of cases, walks along the circle on the thin, uncomfortable border of the entrance and it typically flies from the internal border to the top following the higher concentration of the evaporated bait gathered in the top part of the trap. The gap is necessary, and in-fact, an efficient and cost effective solution that ensures that the insect will not have an available path to by-pass the sensors by walking. The sensor is able to detect and record an insect as long as it flies (see S1 Multimedia for optoacoustic recordings of several flying insects and S4 Video).


Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

Potamitis I, Rigakis I, Fysarakis K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Spectra of 20 different cases of B. oleae optoacoustic, in-flight recordings.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636391&req=5

pone.0140474.g010: Spectra of 20 different cases of B. oleae optoacoustic, in-flight recordings.
Mentions: The trap carries a photodiodes array sensor identical to the one used to record the reference patterns in the laboratory (as depicted in Fig 5). The identicalness of the sensors is essential in order to ensure that the sensors will not induce mismatch between wingbeats recorded in the lab (see Fig 10) that serve as prototypes and recordings of the unknown, entering insect. The emitters are placed in a dark plastic thin container in order to be held aligned opposite to the receivers. The same type of containers provide shade to the optical receivers. Environmental light and reflections must be attenuated as much as possible allowing mostly emitters’ light to reach the receptors. It is important to avoid physical light coming from outside the trap to act as an emitter as then insects inside the trap may modulate physical light and give false measurements. The electronics are placed as an independent add-on, attached to the plastic top of the trap, so that we effect minimal disturbance of the internal space of the trap (see Fig 11, S30–S35 Figs and S3 Video). It is our effort that the insects sense a typical McPhail type trap, as the literature has tested extensively insects’ response to it. There is an intentional gap between the border of the inner entrance of the inverted funnel and the support of the sensors (see Fig 12). Video recordings of traps in the field as well in the laboratory have shown that B. oleae enters the trap either by flying or by landing on the outside of the trap and walks up through the outer entrance of the inverted funnel to the inner entrance following the chemical signals emerging from the entrance. Then, in the vast majority of cases, walks along the circle on the thin, uncomfortable border of the entrance and it typically flies from the internal border to the top following the higher concentration of the evaporated bait gathered in the top part of the trap. The gap is necessary, and in-fact, an efficient and cost effective solution that ensures that the insect will not have an available path to by-pass the sensors by walking. The sensor is able to detect and record an insect as long as it flies (see S1 Multimedia for optoacoustic recordings of several flying insects and S4 Video).

Bottom Line: Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible.We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means.Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Music Technology & Acoustics, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, E. Daskalaki Perivolia, 74100, Rethymno Crete, Greece.

ABSTRACT
Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus