Limits...
Butterfly Eyespots: Their Potential Influence on Aesthetic Preferences and Conservation Attitudes.

Manesi Z, Van Lange PA, Pollet TV - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Four online experimental studies, involving 613 participants, demonstrated that eyespots significantly increased liking for a butterfly species.Furthermore, eyespots significantly increased positive attitudes towards conservation of a butterfly species (Studies 1, 2 and 4), whereas liking mediated the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes (Study 2).However, we also found some mixed evidence for an association between eyespots and actual conservation behavior (Studies 3 and 4).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Social and Organizational Psychology, Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Research has shown that the mere presence of stimuli that resemble eyes is sufficient to attract attention, elicit aesthetic responses, and can even enhance prosocial behavior. However, it is less clear whether eye-like stimuli could also be used as a tool for nature conservation. Several animal species, including butterflies, develop eye-like markings that are known as eyespots. In the present research, we explored whether the mere display of eyespots on butterfly wings can enhance: (a) liking for a butterfly species, and (b) attitudes and behaviors towards conservation of a butterfly species. Four online experimental studies, involving 613 participants, demonstrated that eyespots significantly increased liking for a butterfly species. Furthermore, eyespots significantly increased positive attitudes towards conservation of a butterfly species (Studies 1, 2 and 4), whereas liking mediated the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes (Study 2). However, we also found some mixed evidence for an association between eyespots and actual conservation behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Overall, these findings suggest that eyespots may increase liking for an animal and sensitize humans to conservation. We discuss possible implications for biodiversity conservation and future research directions.

No MeSH data available.


Levels of concern for butterfly conservation (Study 2).Boxplots depicting levels of concern (± S.E.) for conservation of spotted versus spotless B. anynana butterflies in Study 2. Levels of concern are measured on a 5-point Likert scale.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636354&req=5

pone.0141433.g002: Levels of concern for butterfly conservation (Study 2).Boxplots depicting levels of concern (± S.E.) for conservation of spotted versus spotless B. anynana butterflies in Study 2. Levels of concern are measured on a 5-point Likert scale.

Mentions: Next, we performed two GzLMs to explore the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes towards butterflies. The first GzLM focused on concern for butterfly protection. A linear model proved a better fit than a Poisson model (ΔAIC = 155.68 in favor of the Linear model). The GzLM for concern for butterfly protection, including eyespots as a main effect, was found to fit the data significantly better than the intercept-only model (B(eyespots) = .30, (95% CI, 0.07–0.54), Wald χ²(1) = 5.22, p = .021). In comparison to the spotless butterfly, the log likelihood of expressing concern for the protection of the spotted butterfly was significantly higher. As shown in Fig 2, the mean value of the eyespot group (M = 4.04, SD = .85, Grouped Mdn = 4.12) was slightly, yet significantly, higher compared to that of the control group (M = 3.75, SD = .99, Grouped Mdn = 3.80, Cohen’s d = .31).


Butterfly Eyespots: Their Potential Influence on Aesthetic Preferences and Conservation Attitudes.

Manesi Z, Van Lange PA, Pollet TV - PLoS ONE (2015)

Levels of concern for butterfly conservation (Study 2).Boxplots depicting levels of concern (± S.E.) for conservation of spotted versus spotless B. anynana butterflies in Study 2. Levels of concern are measured on a 5-point Likert scale.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636354&req=5

pone.0141433.g002: Levels of concern for butterfly conservation (Study 2).Boxplots depicting levels of concern (± S.E.) for conservation of spotted versus spotless B. anynana butterflies in Study 2. Levels of concern are measured on a 5-point Likert scale.
Mentions: Next, we performed two GzLMs to explore the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes towards butterflies. The first GzLM focused on concern for butterfly protection. A linear model proved a better fit than a Poisson model (ΔAIC = 155.68 in favor of the Linear model). The GzLM for concern for butterfly protection, including eyespots as a main effect, was found to fit the data significantly better than the intercept-only model (B(eyespots) = .30, (95% CI, 0.07–0.54), Wald χ²(1) = 5.22, p = .021). In comparison to the spotless butterfly, the log likelihood of expressing concern for the protection of the spotted butterfly was significantly higher. As shown in Fig 2, the mean value of the eyespot group (M = 4.04, SD = .85, Grouped Mdn = 4.12) was slightly, yet significantly, higher compared to that of the control group (M = 3.75, SD = .99, Grouped Mdn = 3.80, Cohen’s d = .31).

Bottom Line: Four online experimental studies, involving 613 participants, demonstrated that eyespots significantly increased liking for a butterfly species.Furthermore, eyespots significantly increased positive attitudes towards conservation of a butterfly species (Studies 1, 2 and 4), whereas liking mediated the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes (Study 2).However, we also found some mixed evidence for an association between eyespots and actual conservation behavior (Studies 3 and 4).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Social and Organizational Psychology, Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Research has shown that the mere presence of stimuli that resemble eyes is sufficient to attract attention, elicit aesthetic responses, and can even enhance prosocial behavior. However, it is less clear whether eye-like stimuli could also be used as a tool for nature conservation. Several animal species, including butterflies, develop eye-like markings that are known as eyespots. In the present research, we explored whether the mere display of eyespots on butterfly wings can enhance: (a) liking for a butterfly species, and (b) attitudes and behaviors towards conservation of a butterfly species. Four online experimental studies, involving 613 participants, demonstrated that eyespots significantly increased liking for a butterfly species. Furthermore, eyespots significantly increased positive attitudes towards conservation of a butterfly species (Studies 1, 2 and 4), whereas liking mediated the eyespot effect on conservation attitudes (Study 2). However, we also found some mixed evidence for an association between eyespots and actual conservation behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Overall, these findings suggest that eyespots may increase liking for an animal and sensitize humans to conservation. We discuss possible implications for biodiversity conservation and future research directions.

No MeSH data available.