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Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome.

Bhattacharya T, Ghosh TS, Mande SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla.Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated.These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teach for India, A 903, Tain Square, Fatima Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Motivation: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.

Results: This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

No MeSH data available.


Variation of the abundance and diversity of CAZymes across geographies.Variation of the abundance of CAZymes across (a) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (b) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. Variation of the diversity of CAZymes across (c) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (d) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. For the adult individuals, while there is little variation in the diversity of CAZymes across countries, there are country-specific trends in the abundances of various CAZyme families. High CAZyme/MB content in individuals from rural Venezuela and Malawi may be attributable to their carbohydrate rich diet. It also shows that each adult individual, in general, have a consistent diversity across countries. However, in children and infants, in whom the gut flora is developing and unstable, diversity of CAZymes fluctuates greatly.
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pone.0142038.g005: Variation of the abundance and diversity of CAZymes across geographies.Variation of the abundance of CAZymes across (a) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (b) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. Variation of the diversity of CAZymes across (c) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (d) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. For the adult individuals, while there is little variation in the diversity of CAZymes across countries, there are country-specific trends in the abundances of various CAZyme families. High CAZyme/MB content in individuals from rural Venezuela and Malawi may be attributable to their carbohydrate rich diet. It also shows that each adult individual, in general, have a consistent diversity across countries. However, in children and infants, in whom the gut flora is developing and unstable, diversity of CAZymes fluctuates greatly.

Mentions: Certain interesting patterns were observed when the abundances and diversity of CAZymes were compared across the gut microbiomes of adults from different nationalities (Figs 5 and S3, S4 Table). Overall, for adult individuals, diversity of CAZymes was observed to be similar across all nationalities. In contrast, the abundances of CAZymes were observed to vary across different geographies (Fig 5). Adults from Malawi and Venezuela were observed to have an aberrantly high abundance of CAZymes (Figs 5 and S3) as compared to other groups (ANOVA, p < 0.01, corrected for multiple tests, post-hoc Tukey’s HSD). Besides the Malawian and Venezuelan populations, the abundances of CAZymes in adult samples from the remaining seven geographies were found to be relatively similar. However, comparing the abundances of CAZymes in the individuals belonging to these seven nationalities indicated that their CAZyme repertoires could be further divided into two groups. The first group, consisting of USA, Japan, Italy and France, had a higher abundance of CAZymes as compared to the second group, consisting of Denmark, Spain and China (ANOVA, P-value < 0.05 corrected using Bonferroni). This indicates certain geography-specific trends of the abundance of CAZymes. While the under-pinning of such differences will require extensive analyses, prima facie it might be suggested that such difference may be the result of dietary differences of the Malawian and Venezuelan populations with the rest.


Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome.

Bhattacharya T, Ghosh TS, Mande SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Variation of the abundance and diversity of CAZymes across geographies.Variation of the abundance of CAZymes across (a) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (b) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. Variation of the diversity of CAZymes across (c) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (d) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. For the adult individuals, while there is little variation in the diversity of CAZymes across countries, there are country-specific trends in the abundances of various CAZyme families. High CAZyme/MB content in individuals from rural Venezuela and Malawi may be attributable to their carbohydrate rich diet. It also shows that each adult individual, in general, have a consistent diversity across countries. However, in children and infants, in whom the gut flora is developing and unstable, diversity of CAZymes fluctuates greatly.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636310&req=5

pone.0142038.g005: Variation of the abundance and diversity of CAZymes across geographies.Variation of the abundance of CAZymes across (a) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (b) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. Variation of the diversity of CAZymes across (c) Adult individuals belonging to various geographies and, (d) Children/infant individuals belonging to four geographies. For the adult individuals, while there is little variation in the diversity of CAZymes across countries, there are country-specific trends in the abundances of various CAZyme families. High CAZyme/MB content in individuals from rural Venezuela and Malawi may be attributable to their carbohydrate rich diet. It also shows that each adult individual, in general, have a consistent diversity across countries. However, in children and infants, in whom the gut flora is developing and unstable, diversity of CAZymes fluctuates greatly.
Mentions: Certain interesting patterns were observed when the abundances and diversity of CAZymes were compared across the gut microbiomes of adults from different nationalities (Figs 5 and S3, S4 Table). Overall, for adult individuals, diversity of CAZymes was observed to be similar across all nationalities. In contrast, the abundances of CAZymes were observed to vary across different geographies (Fig 5). Adults from Malawi and Venezuela were observed to have an aberrantly high abundance of CAZymes (Figs 5 and S3) as compared to other groups (ANOVA, p < 0.01, corrected for multiple tests, post-hoc Tukey’s HSD). Besides the Malawian and Venezuelan populations, the abundances of CAZymes in adult samples from the remaining seven geographies were found to be relatively similar. However, comparing the abundances of CAZymes in the individuals belonging to these seven nationalities indicated that their CAZyme repertoires could be further divided into two groups. The first group, consisting of USA, Japan, Italy and France, had a higher abundance of CAZymes as compared to the second group, consisting of Denmark, Spain and China (ANOVA, P-value < 0.05 corrected using Bonferroni). This indicates certain geography-specific trends of the abundance of CAZymes. While the under-pinning of such differences will require extensive analyses, prima facie it might be suggested that such difference may be the result of dietary differences of the Malawian and Venezuelan populations with the rest.

Bottom Line: Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla.Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated.These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teach for India, A 903, Tain Square, Fatima Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Motivation: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.

Results: This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

No MeSH data available.