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Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome.

Bhattacharya T, Ghosh TS, Mande SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla.Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated.These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teach for India, A 903, Tain Square, Fatima Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Motivation: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.

Results: This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

No MeSH data available.


Variation of CAZyme abundances with BMI.(a) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of all gut-associated CAZymes (b) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of the 10 CAZyme families showing significant positive correlation with BMI. The overall summed abundance of all gut associated CAZyme families does not show any correlation with the BMI of the individuals. However, obtaining the correlation of the individual CAZyme families identified 10 such families (listed in Table 1) having a significantly positive correlation with BMI. The correlation of the summed abundances of these 10 families (computed using a sliding window based approach explained in the Methods section) with the BMI was observed to be even more significant (R^2 = 0.44, P < 0.01).
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pone.0142038.g003: Variation of CAZyme abundances with BMI.(a) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of all gut-associated CAZymes (b) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of the 10 CAZyme families showing significant positive correlation with BMI. The overall summed abundance of all gut associated CAZyme families does not show any correlation with the BMI of the individuals. However, obtaining the correlation of the individual CAZyme families identified 10 such families (listed in Table 1) having a significantly positive correlation with BMI. The correlation of the summed abundances of these 10 families (computed using a sliding window based approach explained in the Methods section) with the BMI was observed to be even more significant (R^2 = 0.44, P < 0.01).

Mentions: The overall abundances of CAZymes in individuals from Japan, France, Denmark, China, Spain, France, Italy (for whom BMI metadata was available) was observed to have a weak positive correlation (R^2 = 0.0255, Corrected P-value > 0.05) with BMI of the subjects (Fig 3A). However, analyzing the correlations of individual CAZymes with BMI indicated certain interesting trends. 10 CAZyme families were observed to have significant positive correlations, (P-value < 0.05, corrected using Bonferroni) (Table 1). Seven of the positively correlated CAZyme families were found to digest complex carbohydrates (Table 1). The cumulative abundance of these 10 CAZyme families (obtained using a sliding window based approach as described in Methods) was observed to show a much higher positive correlation with BMI (R^2 = 0.44) (Fig 3B). These results suggest that while the overall abundance of CAZymes does not show any relationship with an individual's BMI, bacteria specifically harboring these 10 CAZyme families (whose cumulated abundances have a statistically significant correlation with BMI) might act as one of the causative factors of obesity.


Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome.

Bhattacharya T, Ghosh TS, Mande SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Variation of CAZyme abundances with BMI.(a) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of all gut-associated CAZymes (b) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of the 10 CAZyme families showing significant positive correlation with BMI. The overall summed abundance of all gut associated CAZyme families does not show any correlation with the BMI of the individuals. However, obtaining the correlation of the individual CAZyme families identified 10 such families (listed in Table 1) having a significantly positive correlation with BMI. The correlation of the summed abundances of these 10 families (computed using a sliding window based approach explained in the Methods section) with the BMI was observed to be even more significant (R^2 = 0.44, P < 0.01).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636310&req=5

pone.0142038.g003: Variation of CAZyme abundances with BMI.(a) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of all gut-associated CAZymes (b) Correlation of BMI with summed abundances of the 10 CAZyme families showing significant positive correlation with BMI. The overall summed abundance of all gut associated CAZyme families does not show any correlation with the BMI of the individuals. However, obtaining the correlation of the individual CAZyme families identified 10 such families (listed in Table 1) having a significantly positive correlation with BMI. The correlation of the summed abundances of these 10 families (computed using a sliding window based approach explained in the Methods section) with the BMI was observed to be even more significant (R^2 = 0.44, P < 0.01).
Mentions: The overall abundances of CAZymes in individuals from Japan, France, Denmark, China, Spain, France, Italy (for whom BMI metadata was available) was observed to have a weak positive correlation (R^2 = 0.0255, Corrected P-value > 0.05) with BMI of the subjects (Fig 3A). However, analyzing the correlations of individual CAZymes with BMI indicated certain interesting trends. 10 CAZyme families were observed to have significant positive correlations, (P-value < 0.05, corrected using Bonferroni) (Table 1). Seven of the positively correlated CAZyme families were found to digest complex carbohydrates (Table 1). The cumulative abundance of these 10 CAZyme families (obtained using a sliding window based approach as described in Methods) was observed to show a much higher positive correlation with BMI (R^2 = 0.44) (Fig 3B). These results suggest that while the overall abundance of CAZymes does not show any relationship with an individual's BMI, bacteria specifically harboring these 10 CAZyme families (whose cumulated abundances have a statistically significant correlation with BMI) might act as one of the causative factors of obesity.

Bottom Line: Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla.Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated.These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teach for India, A 903, Tain Square, Fatima Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Motivation: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.

Results: This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

No MeSH data available.