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Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome.

Bhattacharya T, Ghosh TS, Mande SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla.Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated.These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teach for India, A 903, Tain Square, Fatima Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Motivation: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.

Results: This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

No MeSH data available.


Differential CAZyme profiles across age and geographies.Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showing global profiles of CAZymes across (a) Age and, (b) Geography. While there is a clear distinction in the CAZyme profiles of children/infants as compared to adult individuals, the differences among the adult individuals of various geographies are relatively subtle. However these differences are with respect to the overall CAZyme profiles.
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pone.0142038.g001: Differential CAZyme profiles across age and geographies.Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showing global profiles of CAZymes across (a) Age and, (b) Geography. While there is a clear distinction in the CAZyme profiles of children/infants as compared to adult individuals, the differences among the adult individuals of various geographies are relatively subtle. However these differences are with respect to the overall CAZyme profiles.

Mentions: Results of the multivariate Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) indicated distinct composition of CAZymes constituting the guts of infants as well as children as compared to those of adults (Fig 1A). Further, the geography-wise PLS-DA revealed that the CAZyme profiles in the guts of the Malawi, Venezuelan, Japanese and Indian nationalities to be different (Fig 1B). This could be because of the distinctly low average age of these individuals. CAZyme families specifically involved in the degradation of simple carbohydrates (like lactose, sucrose) namely, GH1 and GH13, were observed to be specifically abundant in the infant gut microbiomes (S2 Table). On the other hand, apart from simple carbohydrate degrading CAZymes, the children/adult gut was found to contain several complex carbohydrate degrading enzymes (S3 Table). These observations suggest that, with intake of diet containing complex carbohydrates (in addition to simple sugars), the gut microbiome enriches itself with complex carbohydrate degrading enzymes.


Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome.

Bhattacharya T, Ghosh TS, Mande SS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Differential CAZyme profiles across age and geographies.Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showing global profiles of CAZymes across (a) Age and, (b) Geography. While there is a clear distinction in the CAZyme profiles of children/infants as compared to adult individuals, the differences among the adult individuals of various geographies are relatively subtle. However these differences are with respect to the overall CAZyme profiles.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636310&req=5

pone.0142038.g001: Differential CAZyme profiles across age and geographies.Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showing global profiles of CAZymes across (a) Age and, (b) Geography. While there is a clear distinction in the CAZyme profiles of children/infants as compared to adult individuals, the differences among the adult individuals of various geographies are relatively subtle. However these differences are with respect to the overall CAZyme profiles.
Mentions: Results of the multivariate Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) indicated distinct composition of CAZymes constituting the guts of infants as well as children as compared to those of adults (Fig 1A). Further, the geography-wise PLS-DA revealed that the CAZyme profiles in the guts of the Malawi, Venezuelan, Japanese and Indian nationalities to be different (Fig 1B). This could be because of the distinctly low average age of these individuals. CAZyme families specifically involved in the degradation of simple carbohydrates (like lactose, sucrose) namely, GH1 and GH13, were observed to be specifically abundant in the infant gut microbiomes (S2 Table). On the other hand, apart from simple carbohydrate degrading CAZymes, the children/adult gut was found to contain several complex carbohydrate degrading enzymes (S3 Table). These observations suggest that, with intake of diet containing complex carbohydrates (in addition to simple sugars), the gut microbiome enriches itself with complex carbohydrate degrading enzymes.

Bottom Line: Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla.Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated.These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Teach for India, A 903, Tain Square, Fatima Nagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Motivation: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.

Results: This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results re-iterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

No MeSH data available.