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Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9-12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

Golle K, Muehlbauer T, Wick D, Granacher U - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d).Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40-1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only.Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Research Focus Cognition Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9-12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values.

Methods: Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d).

Results: Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40-1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10-11 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs), agility (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1,407-1,507 m, 1,479-1,597 m, 1,423-1,654 m, and 1,433-1,666 m in 9- to 12-year-old boys and 1,262-1,362 m, 1,329-1,434 m, 1,392-1,501 m, and 1,415-1,526 m in 9- to 12-year-old girls correspond to a "medium" fitness level (i.e., P40 to P60) in this population.

Conclusions: The observed differences in physical fitness development between boys and girls illustrate that age- and sex-specific maturational processes might have an impact on the fitness status of healthy children. Our statistical analyses revealed linear (e.g., lower-extremity muscular power) and curvilinear (e.g., agility) models of fitness improvement with age which is indicative of timed and capacity-specific fitness development pattern during childhood. Lastly, the provided age- and sex-specific percentile values can be used by coaches for talent identification and by teachers for rating/grading of children's motor performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Smoothed LMS curves for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the (a) 50-m sprint test, (b) ball push test, (c) triple hop test, (d) stand-and-reach test, (e) star agility run test, and (f) 6-min run test in boys and girls from age 9 to 12 years.
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pone.0142393.g003: Smoothed LMS curves for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the (a) 50-m sprint test, (b) ball push test, (c) triple hop test, (d) stand-and-reach test, (e) star agility run test, and (f) 6-min run test in boys and girls from age 9 to 12 years.

Mentions: Smoothed age-specific percentiles (i.e., from P10 to P90) are presented in Table 2 for the 50-m sprint test, the 1-kg ball push test, and the triple hop test. Table 3 illustrates smoothed age-specific percentiles for the stand-and-reach test, the star agility run test, and the 9-min run test. For the same physical fitness tests, smoothed LMS curves for 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile are depicted in Fig 3. Our data indicate a linear improvement for proxies of speed (both sexes), lower-extremity muscular power (both sexes), and flexibility (girls only). Curvilinear enhancements were found in boys and girls for measures of upper-extremity muscular power, agility, and endurance. For endurance, curvilinear pattern merged in a performance plateau at the age of 12 in both sexes. Notably, no performance development was observed for the stand-and-reach test in boys. Further, margins between P10, P50, and P90 hardly changed over time for the 50-m sprint test in both sexes. The same pattern was found in girls for the triple hop test, the stand-and-reach test, and the 9-min run test. In contrast, margins between percentile curves decreased with advancing age for the star agility run test and increased for the ball push test in both sexes. In addition, an increase of margins between the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile was observed for the triple hop test and the 9-min run test in boys.


Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9-12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

Golle K, Muehlbauer T, Wick D, Granacher U - PLoS ONE (2015)

Smoothed LMS curves for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the (a) 50-m sprint test, (b) ball push test, (c) triple hop test, (d) stand-and-reach test, (e) star agility run test, and (f) 6-min run test in boys and girls from age 9 to 12 years.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636306&req=5

pone.0142393.g003: Smoothed LMS curves for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the (a) 50-m sprint test, (b) ball push test, (c) triple hop test, (d) stand-and-reach test, (e) star agility run test, and (f) 6-min run test in boys and girls from age 9 to 12 years.
Mentions: Smoothed age-specific percentiles (i.e., from P10 to P90) are presented in Table 2 for the 50-m sprint test, the 1-kg ball push test, and the triple hop test. Table 3 illustrates smoothed age-specific percentiles for the stand-and-reach test, the star agility run test, and the 9-min run test. For the same physical fitness tests, smoothed LMS curves for 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile are depicted in Fig 3. Our data indicate a linear improvement for proxies of speed (both sexes), lower-extremity muscular power (both sexes), and flexibility (girls only). Curvilinear enhancements were found in boys and girls for measures of upper-extremity muscular power, agility, and endurance. For endurance, curvilinear pattern merged in a performance plateau at the age of 12 in both sexes. Notably, no performance development was observed for the stand-and-reach test in boys. Further, margins between P10, P50, and P90 hardly changed over time for the 50-m sprint test in both sexes. The same pattern was found in girls for the triple hop test, the stand-and-reach test, and the 9-min run test. In contrast, margins between percentile curves decreased with advancing age for the star agility run test and increased for the ball push test in both sexes. In addition, an increase of margins between the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile was observed for the triple hop test and the 9-min run test in boys.

Bottom Line: Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d).Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40-1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only.Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Research Focus Cognition Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9-12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values.

Methods: Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d).

Results: Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40-1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10-11 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs), agility (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1,407-1,507 m, 1,479-1,597 m, 1,423-1,654 m, and 1,433-1,666 m in 9- to 12-year-old boys and 1,262-1,362 m, 1,329-1,434 m, 1,392-1,501 m, and 1,415-1,526 m in 9- to 12-year-old girls correspond to a "medium" fitness level (i.e., P40 to P60) in this population.

Conclusions: The observed differences in physical fitness development between boys and girls illustrate that age- and sex-specific maturational processes might have an impact on the fitness status of healthy children. Our statistical analyses revealed linear (e.g., lower-extremity muscular power) and curvilinear (e.g., agility) models of fitness improvement with age which is indicative of timed and capacity-specific fitness development pattern during childhood. Lastly, the provided age- and sex-specific percentile values can be used by coaches for talent identification and by teachers for rating/grading of children's motor performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus