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Learning Upright Standing on a Multiaxial Balance Board.

Valle MS, Casabona A, Cavallaro C, Castorina G, Cioni M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time.The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences.Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Upright stance on a balance board is a skill requiring complex rearrangement of the postural control. Despite the large use of these boards in training the standing posture, a comprehensive analysis of the learning process underlying the control of these devices is lacking. In this paper learning to maintain a stable stance on a multiaxial oscillating board was studied by analyzing performance changes over short and long periods. Healthy participants were asked to keep the board orientation as horizontal as possible for 20 sec, performing two sessions of 8 trials separated by 15-min pause. Memory consolidation was tested one week later. Amplitude and variability of the oscillations around horizontal plane and area and sway path of the board displacement decreased rapidly over the first session. The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week. A similar behavior was observed in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for amplitude and variability parameters, with less stable balance in the anterior-posterior direction. Approximate entropy and mean power frequency, assessing temporal dynamics and frequency content of oscillations, changed only in the anterior-posterior direction during the retention test. Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time. The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences. Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

No MeSH data available.


Changes in variability along AP and ML directions across the time course of learning.Root Mean Square (A) and Approximate entropy (B) computed from the time series of the unit normal vector along AP and ML directions. Symbols, units in A and abbreviations as in Figs 2 and 3.
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pone.0142423.g005: Changes in variability along AP and ML directions across the time course of learning.Root Mean Square (A) and Approximate entropy (B) computed from the time series of the unit normal vector along AP and ML directions. Symbols, units in A and abbreviations as in Figs 2 and 3.

Mentions: Temporal variations in the board normal vector oscillations along AP and ML axes were estimated by linear (RMS; Fig 5A) and non-linear (ApEn; Fig 5B) parameters. RMS exhibited significant differences for directions, sessions, and trials with the largest variance explained by sessions. The values in AP direction were higher than the values in ML direction across the sessions, and there was no significant interaction between directions and sessions. Post hoc analysis indicates significant changes between S1 and S2 and between S1 and the retention session (Table 2, parameter 4). The ApEn showed a main effect for the sessions and a significant interaction between the directions and the sessions (Table 2, parameter 5). There were significant differences between each of training session and the retention, with valuable effect sizes. No significant difference was exhibited between S1 and S2. The ApEn values in AP direction were lower than ML direction during S1 and S2, but the level of regularity of the signal in the two directions converged during the retention session.


Learning Upright Standing on a Multiaxial Balance Board.

Valle MS, Casabona A, Cavallaro C, Castorina G, Cioni M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Changes in variability along AP and ML directions across the time course of learning.Root Mean Square (A) and Approximate entropy (B) computed from the time series of the unit normal vector along AP and ML directions. Symbols, units in A and abbreviations as in Figs 2 and 3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636294&req=5

pone.0142423.g005: Changes in variability along AP and ML directions across the time course of learning.Root Mean Square (A) and Approximate entropy (B) computed from the time series of the unit normal vector along AP and ML directions. Symbols, units in A and abbreviations as in Figs 2 and 3.
Mentions: Temporal variations in the board normal vector oscillations along AP and ML axes were estimated by linear (RMS; Fig 5A) and non-linear (ApEn; Fig 5B) parameters. RMS exhibited significant differences for directions, sessions, and trials with the largest variance explained by sessions. The values in AP direction were higher than the values in ML direction across the sessions, and there was no significant interaction between directions and sessions. Post hoc analysis indicates significant changes between S1 and S2 and between S1 and the retention session (Table 2, parameter 4). The ApEn showed a main effect for the sessions and a significant interaction between the directions and the sessions (Table 2, parameter 5). There were significant differences between each of training session and the retention, with valuable effect sizes. No significant difference was exhibited between S1 and S2. The ApEn values in AP direction were lower than ML direction during S1 and S2, but the level of regularity of the signal in the two directions converged during the retention session.

Bottom Line: Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time.The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences.Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Upright stance on a balance board is a skill requiring complex rearrangement of the postural control. Despite the large use of these boards in training the standing posture, a comprehensive analysis of the learning process underlying the control of these devices is lacking. In this paper learning to maintain a stable stance on a multiaxial oscillating board was studied by analyzing performance changes over short and long periods. Healthy participants were asked to keep the board orientation as horizontal as possible for 20 sec, performing two sessions of 8 trials separated by 15-min pause. Memory consolidation was tested one week later. Amplitude and variability of the oscillations around horizontal plane and area and sway path of the board displacement decreased rapidly over the first session. The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week. A similar behavior was observed in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for amplitude and variability parameters, with less stable balance in the anterior-posterior direction. Approximate entropy and mean power frequency, assessing temporal dynamics and frequency content of oscillations, changed only in the anterior-posterior direction during the retention test. Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time. The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences. Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

No MeSH data available.