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Learning Upright Standing on a Multiaxial Balance Board.

Valle MS, Casabona A, Cavallaro C, Castorina G, Cioni M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week.The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences.Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Upright stance on a balance board is a skill requiring complex rearrangement of the postural control. Despite the large use of these boards in training the standing posture, a comprehensive analysis of the learning process underlying the control of these devices is lacking. In this paper learning to maintain a stable stance on a multiaxial oscillating board was studied by analyzing performance changes over short and long periods. Healthy participants were asked to keep the board orientation as horizontal as possible for 20 sec, performing two sessions of 8 trials separated by 15-min pause. Memory consolidation was tested one week later. Amplitude and variability of the oscillations around horizontal plane and area and sway path of the board displacement decreased rapidly over the first session. The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week. A similar behavior was observed in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for amplitude and variability parameters, with less stable balance in the anterior-posterior direction. Approximate entropy and mean power frequency, assessing temporal dynamics and frequency content of oscillations, changed only in the anterior-posterior direction during the retention test. Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time. The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences. Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative example of the postural outcome.The plots illustrate the effect of practice on the balance board motion exhibited by one participant during three trials (t1, t5, t3) performed across three sessions (S1, S2, retention). (A) Amplitude of angular oscillations of the board around the horizontal plane regardless of the direction. Dashed lines indicate the mean values. (B) Area covered by the unit normal vector expressed as 95% confidence ellipse. (C and D) Amplitude of oscillations of the unit normal vector along Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medial-Lateral (ML) directions. (E and F) Power Spectral Density analysis performed in AP and ML directions. Dashed lines indicate the Mean Power Frequency. The axes values reported in B and in vertical axes of C and D derive from measurements of the space as unit vector.
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pone.0142423.g002: Representative example of the postural outcome.The plots illustrate the effect of practice on the balance board motion exhibited by one participant during three trials (t1, t5, t3) performed across three sessions (S1, S2, retention). (A) Amplitude of angular oscillations of the board around the horizontal plane regardless of the direction. Dashed lines indicate the mean values. (B) Area covered by the unit normal vector expressed as 95% confidence ellipse. (C and D) Amplitude of oscillations of the unit normal vector along Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medial-Lateral (ML) directions. (E and F) Power Spectral Density analysis performed in AP and ML directions. Dashed lines indicate the Mean Power Frequency. The axes values reported in B and in vertical axes of C and D derive from measurements of the space as unit vector.

Mentions: A representative example of data obtained from one participant is illustrated in the Fig 2. The board oscillations approximated the horizontal plane (0 degree) as the training evolved from the trial 1 (t1) of the S1 to the trial 5 (t5) of the S2. The acquired performance was maintained in the retention session (Fig 2A). The training also had a similar effect on the spatial motion of the board across the horizontal plane, with reduction and final consolidation for the area covered by the trajectory of the board normal vector (Fig 2B), and for the oscillations amplitude in the AP (Fig 2C) and ML (Fig 2D) directions. The amplitude and the variability (RMS) of the fluctuations were higher along the AP than ML direction across the three trials. However, when the variability was measured as ApEn the two directions diverged in S1 and S2, but showed similar values during the retention session. The profiles of the PSD for the AP (Fig 2E) and ML (Fig 2F) directions exhibited a reduction of the amplitude of the frequency at the lower band, with more similar values of MPF (vertical dashed lines) between the two directions in the retention test.


Learning Upright Standing on a Multiaxial Balance Board.

Valle MS, Casabona A, Cavallaro C, Castorina G, Cioni M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Representative example of the postural outcome.The plots illustrate the effect of practice on the balance board motion exhibited by one participant during three trials (t1, t5, t3) performed across three sessions (S1, S2, retention). (A) Amplitude of angular oscillations of the board around the horizontal plane regardless of the direction. Dashed lines indicate the mean values. (B) Area covered by the unit normal vector expressed as 95% confidence ellipse. (C and D) Amplitude of oscillations of the unit normal vector along Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medial-Lateral (ML) directions. (E and F) Power Spectral Density analysis performed in AP and ML directions. Dashed lines indicate the Mean Power Frequency. The axes values reported in B and in vertical axes of C and D derive from measurements of the space as unit vector.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636294&req=5

pone.0142423.g002: Representative example of the postural outcome.The plots illustrate the effect of practice on the balance board motion exhibited by one participant during three trials (t1, t5, t3) performed across three sessions (S1, S2, retention). (A) Amplitude of angular oscillations of the board around the horizontal plane regardless of the direction. Dashed lines indicate the mean values. (B) Area covered by the unit normal vector expressed as 95% confidence ellipse. (C and D) Amplitude of oscillations of the unit normal vector along Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medial-Lateral (ML) directions. (E and F) Power Spectral Density analysis performed in AP and ML directions. Dashed lines indicate the Mean Power Frequency. The axes values reported in B and in vertical axes of C and D derive from measurements of the space as unit vector.
Mentions: A representative example of data obtained from one participant is illustrated in the Fig 2. The board oscillations approximated the horizontal plane (0 degree) as the training evolved from the trial 1 (t1) of the S1 to the trial 5 (t5) of the S2. The acquired performance was maintained in the retention session (Fig 2A). The training also had a similar effect on the spatial motion of the board across the horizontal plane, with reduction and final consolidation for the area covered by the trajectory of the board normal vector (Fig 2B), and for the oscillations amplitude in the AP (Fig 2C) and ML (Fig 2D) directions. The amplitude and the variability (RMS) of the fluctuations were higher along the AP than ML direction across the three trials. However, when the variability was measured as ApEn the two directions diverged in S1 and S2, but showed similar values during the retention session. The profiles of the PSD for the AP (Fig 2E) and ML (Fig 2F) directions exhibited a reduction of the amplitude of the frequency at the lower band, with more similar values of MPF (vertical dashed lines) between the two directions in the retention test.

Bottom Line: The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week.The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences.Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Upright stance on a balance board is a skill requiring complex rearrangement of the postural control. Despite the large use of these boards in training the standing posture, a comprehensive analysis of the learning process underlying the control of these devices is lacking. In this paper learning to maintain a stable stance on a multiaxial oscillating board was studied by analyzing performance changes over short and long periods. Healthy participants were asked to keep the board orientation as horizontal as possible for 20 sec, performing two sessions of 8 trials separated by 15-min pause. Memory consolidation was tested one week later. Amplitude and variability of the oscillations around horizontal plane and area and sway path of the board displacement decreased rapidly over the first session. The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week. A similar behavior was observed in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for amplitude and variability parameters, with less stable balance in the anterior-posterior direction. Approximate entropy and mean power frequency, assessing temporal dynamics and frequency content of oscillations, changed only in the anterior-posterior direction during the retention test. Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time. The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences. Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus