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Exposure of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients to Toxic Elements Released during Orthodontic Treatment in the Study of Non-Invasive Matrices.

Mikulewicz M, Kachniarz K, Chojnacka K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Multi-elemental analyses of the composition of non-invasive matrices was conducted in an accredited laboratory by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry technique ICP-OES.The results were reported as mean contents of particular elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si) in hair and in saliva.It was found that orthodontic appliances used in long-term treatment of cleft lip and palate patients do not release toxic levels of Cr and Ni ions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dentofacial Orthopaedics and Orthodontics, Division of Facial Abnormalities, Medical University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland.

ABSTRACT

The objective: The aim of the study was evaluation of metal ions (nickel and chromium) released from orthodontic appliances in cleft lip and palate patients and the usefulness of non-invasive matrices (saliva and hair).

Materials and methods: The material studied consisted of 100 individuals, including 59 females and 41 males of 5 to 16 years of age, which were divided into 3 groups: experimental-patients with cleft lip and palate (36 individuals, the average treatment time 5.74 years); control group-patients without cleft lip and palate, during orthodontic treatment (32 individuals, the average treatment time 1.78 years) and the control group patients without cleft lip and palate, without any orthodontic appliances (32 individuals). Samples (saliva, hair) were collected and subjects underwent a survey by questionnaire. Multi-elemental analyses of the composition of non-invasive matrices was conducted in an accredited laboratory by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry technique ICP-OES. The results were reported as mean contents of particular elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si) in hair and in saliva.

Results: The concentration of Cr, Ni, Fe and Cu ions in saliva of cleft lip and palate patients were several times higher as compared with not treated orthodontically control groups and higher than in the group with orthodontic appliances. Among the assessed matrices, hair of cleft lip and palate patients seem to be not a meaningful biomarker.

Conclusion: It was found that orthodontic appliances used in long-term treatment of cleft lip and palate patients do not release toxic levels of Cr and Ni ions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The contents of elements in saliva.
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pone.0140211.g002: The contents of elements in saliva.

Mentions: Among the elements occurring in the saliva, there were no significant statistical differences between groups E, C1 and C2. For Cr, the value in saliva in the E group was 0.00642 (mg/kg), followed by lower values in the C1 groups (0.004 mg/kg), followed by 0.003 mg/kg. Although these values were different, and although the value in the E group was higher than those values in the C1 and C2 groups, the differences did not achieve statistical significance (Tables 3 and 4). For copper, the value in saliva in the Group E was 0.1 mg/kg, which was higher than the value in the C1 group (0.057 mg/kg) and higher than the value in the C2 group (0.054) (Tables 3 and 4). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. For Mn, the value in saliva in the Group E patients, 0.027 kg/kg, was higher than the values in control group 1 (0.019 mg/kg) and higher than the value in control group 2 (0.017, mg/kg). These differences did not reach statistical significance. For the element Ni, the value in group E in saliva of 0.00978 mg/kg, was higher than that in control group 1 (0.008 mg/kg) and higher than that in control group 2 (0.003 mg/kg). However, again, these differences were not statistically significant. The results for Cr and Ni in saliva are reported as box-plot graphs in Fig 2A and 2B.


Exposure of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients to Toxic Elements Released during Orthodontic Treatment in the Study of Non-Invasive Matrices.

Mikulewicz M, Kachniarz K, Chojnacka K - PLoS ONE (2015)

The contents of elements in saliva.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4636263&req=5

pone.0140211.g002: The contents of elements in saliva.
Mentions: Among the elements occurring in the saliva, there were no significant statistical differences between groups E, C1 and C2. For Cr, the value in saliva in the E group was 0.00642 (mg/kg), followed by lower values in the C1 groups (0.004 mg/kg), followed by 0.003 mg/kg. Although these values were different, and although the value in the E group was higher than those values in the C1 and C2 groups, the differences did not achieve statistical significance (Tables 3 and 4). For copper, the value in saliva in the Group E was 0.1 mg/kg, which was higher than the value in the C1 group (0.057 mg/kg) and higher than the value in the C2 group (0.054) (Tables 3 and 4). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. For Mn, the value in saliva in the Group E patients, 0.027 kg/kg, was higher than the values in control group 1 (0.019 mg/kg) and higher than the value in control group 2 (0.017, mg/kg). These differences did not reach statistical significance. For the element Ni, the value in group E in saliva of 0.00978 mg/kg, was higher than that in control group 1 (0.008 mg/kg) and higher than that in control group 2 (0.003 mg/kg). However, again, these differences were not statistically significant. The results for Cr and Ni in saliva are reported as box-plot graphs in Fig 2A and 2B.

Bottom Line: Multi-elemental analyses of the composition of non-invasive matrices was conducted in an accredited laboratory by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry technique ICP-OES.The results were reported as mean contents of particular elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si) in hair and in saliva.It was found that orthodontic appliances used in long-term treatment of cleft lip and palate patients do not release toxic levels of Cr and Ni ions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dentofacial Orthopaedics and Orthodontics, Division of Facial Abnormalities, Medical University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland.

ABSTRACT

The objective: The aim of the study was evaluation of metal ions (nickel and chromium) released from orthodontic appliances in cleft lip and palate patients and the usefulness of non-invasive matrices (saliva and hair).

Materials and methods: The material studied consisted of 100 individuals, including 59 females and 41 males of 5 to 16 years of age, which were divided into 3 groups: experimental-patients with cleft lip and palate (36 individuals, the average treatment time 5.74 years); control group-patients without cleft lip and palate, during orthodontic treatment (32 individuals, the average treatment time 1.78 years) and the control group patients without cleft lip and palate, without any orthodontic appliances (32 individuals). Samples (saliva, hair) were collected and subjects underwent a survey by questionnaire. Multi-elemental analyses of the composition of non-invasive matrices was conducted in an accredited laboratory by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry technique ICP-OES. The results were reported as mean contents of particular elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si) in hair and in saliva.

Results: The concentration of Cr, Ni, Fe and Cu ions in saliva of cleft lip and palate patients were several times higher as compared with not treated orthodontically control groups and higher than in the group with orthodontic appliances. Among the assessed matrices, hair of cleft lip and palate patients seem to be not a meaningful biomarker.

Conclusion: It was found that orthodontic appliances used in long-term treatment of cleft lip and palate patients do not release toxic levels of Cr and Ni ions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus