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Evaluation of leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts from western Kenya: in vitro and in vivo assays.

Jumba BN, Anjili CO, Makwali J, Ingonga J, Nyamao R, Marango S, Choge JK, Khayeka-Wandabwa C - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Bottom Line: The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies.Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively.An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Science (Parasitology), University of Eldoret, P.O Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya. benjumba@yahoo.co.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied.

Results: BALB/c mice, treated with combination therapy resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) larger reduction of lesion than those treated with monotherapies. The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies. Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively. Optimal efficacy of A. indica and R. communis was 72 and 59.5 % respectively, combination therapy gave 88 %, while Pentostam and amphotericin B had 98 and 92 % respectively against amastigotes. Against promastigotes A. indica and R. Communis gave an IC50 of 10.1, 25.5 µg mL(-1) respectively, while combination, 12.2 µg mL(-1) against 4.1 and 5.0 µg ml(-1) for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The optimal efficacy of the compounds against promastigotes was 78.0, 61.5 and 91.2 % (A. indica, R. communis and A. indica + R. communis respectively) against 96.5 and 98 % for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The concentrations at optimal efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the test compounds. An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

Conclusion: Combination therapy of A. indica and R. communis had best antileishmanial activity than the monotherapies. The active ingredients of both R. communis and A. indica need to be fractionated, and studied further for activity against Leishmania parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The LDU of L. major parasite in spleen of BALB/c mice infected with L. major receiving various treatments
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Fig6: The LDU of L. major parasite in spleen of BALB/c mice infected with L. major receiving various treatments

Mentions: There were significant differences in the LDU of L. major parasites in BALB/c mice treated with monotherapies of A. indica, R. communis and a combination of A. indica + R. communis (ANOVA; F = df = P = 0.05). In L. major infected BALB/c mice, treatment with Pentostam, amphotericin B and combination therapy resulted in the lowest LDU. The LDU decreased in order of: R. communis > A. indica > A. indica + R. communis. There were no significant differences between LDU of BALB/c mice treated with Pentostam and that treated with combination therapy (p < 0.05). The LDU of L. major parasite in BALB/c mice infected with L. major receiving various treatments is shown in Fig. 6.Fig. 6


Evaluation of leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts from western Kenya: in vitro and in vivo assays.

Jumba BN, Anjili CO, Makwali J, Ingonga J, Nyamao R, Marango S, Choge JK, Khayeka-Wandabwa C - BMC Res Notes (2015)

The LDU of L. major parasite in spleen of BALB/c mice infected with L. major receiving various treatments
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4635543&req=5

Fig6: The LDU of L. major parasite in spleen of BALB/c mice infected with L. major receiving various treatments
Mentions: There were significant differences in the LDU of L. major parasites in BALB/c mice treated with monotherapies of A. indica, R. communis and a combination of A. indica + R. communis (ANOVA; F = df = P = 0.05). In L. major infected BALB/c mice, treatment with Pentostam, amphotericin B and combination therapy resulted in the lowest LDU. The LDU decreased in order of: R. communis > A. indica > A. indica + R. communis. There were no significant differences between LDU of BALB/c mice treated with Pentostam and that treated with combination therapy (p < 0.05). The LDU of L. major parasite in BALB/c mice infected with L. major receiving various treatments is shown in Fig. 6.Fig. 6

Bottom Line: The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies.Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively.An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Science (Parasitology), University of Eldoret, P.O Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya. benjumba@yahoo.co.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied.

Results: BALB/c mice, treated with combination therapy resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) larger reduction of lesion than those treated with monotherapies. The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies. Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively. Optimal efficacy of A. indica and R. communis was 72 and 59.5 % respectively, combination therapy gave 88 %, while Pentostam and amphotericin B had 98 and 92 % respectively against amastigotes. Against promastigotes A. indica and R. Communis gave an IC50 of 10.1, 25.5 µg mL(-1) respectively, while combination, 12.2 µg mL(-1) against 4.1 and 5.0 µg ml(-1) for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The optimal efficacy of the compounds against promastigotes was 78.0, 61.5 and 91.2 % (A. indica, R. communis and A. indica + R. communis respectively) against 96.5 and 98 % for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The concentrations at optimal efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the test compounds. An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

Conclusion: Combination therapy of A. indica and R. communis had best antileishmanial activity than the monotherapies. The active ingredients of both R. communis and A. indica need to be fractionated, and studied further for activity against Leishmania parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus