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Evaluation of leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts from western Kenya: in vitro and in vivo assays.

Jumba BN, Anjili CO, Makwali J, Ingonga J, Nyamao R, Marango S, Choge JK, Khayeka-Wandabwa C - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Bottom Line: The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies.Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively.An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Science (Parasitology), University of Eldoret, P.O Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya. benjumba@yahoo.co.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied.

Results: BALB/c mice, treated with combination therapy resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) larger reduction of lesion than those treated with monotherapies. The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies. Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively. Optimal efficacy of A. indica and R. communis was 72 and 59.5 % respectively, combination therapy gave 88 %, while Pentostam and amphotericin B had 98 and 92 % respectively against amastigotes. Against promastigotes A. indica and R. Communis gave an IC50 of 10.1, 25.5 µg mL(-1) respectively, while combination, 12.2 µg mL(-1) against 4.1 and 5.0 µg ml(-1) for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The optimal efficacy of the compounds against promastigotes was 78.0, 61.5 and 91.2 % (A. indica, R. communis and A. indica + R. communis respectively) against 96.5 and 98 % for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The concentrations at optimal efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the test compounds. An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

Conclusion: Combination therapy of A. indica and R. communis had best antileishmanial activity than the monotherapies. The active ingredients of both R. communis and A. indica need to be fractionated, and studied further for activity against Leishmania parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Promastigote growth inhibition following treatments with various test extracts
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Fig2: Promastigote growth inhibition following treatments with various test extracts

Mentions: The promastigotes growth was significantly affected by the various plant extracts (p < 0.05) after exposure. The % growth inhibition estimated for the promastigote form of parasite fully fitted the logistic regression model (Table 1). Based on the model parameter coefficients of C, the most effective drug against promastigotes was Amphotericin B followed by Pentostam which are standard drugs for leishmaniasis. Among the extracts the combined therapy of A. indica and R. communis was found to be the most effective drugs followed by A. indica while R. communis was the least effective. The efficacy of different concentrations of R. communis, A. indica, A. indica + R. communis and standard drugs Pentostam and Amphotericin B on promastigotes of L. major is shown in Fig. 2. The optimal efficacy, concentration at optimal efficacy, IC90, IC50 of the extracts and standard drugs against promastigote forms of the parasite are shown in Table 2. There were significant differences in the optimal efficacy of the test drugs (p < 0.05). The optimal efficacy of the standard drugs was 98 and 96.5 % for amphotericin B and Pentostam respectively. Among the test extracts, combined therapy of A. indica and R. communis was the most effective against promastigote followed by A. indica while R. communis was the least effective. There was significant (p < 0.05) differences in the IC50 with the lowest IC50 occurring in A. indica + R. communis, followed by A. indica and least in R. communis among the known standard test drugs.Table 1


Evaluation of leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts from western Kenya: in vitro and in vivo assays.

Jumba BN, Anjili CO, Makwali J, Ingonga J, Nyamao R, Marango S, Choge JK, Khayeka-Wandabwa C - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Promastigote growth inhibition following treatments with various test extracts
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4635543&req=5

Fig2: Promastigote growth inhibition following treatments with various test extracts
Mentions: The promastigotes growth was significantly affected by the various plant extracts (p < 0.05) after exposure. The % growth inhibition estimated for the promastigote form of parasite fully fitted the logistic regression model (Table 1). Based on the model parameter coefficients of C, the most effective drug against promastigotes was Amphotericin B followed by Pentostam which are standard drugs for leishmaniasis. Among the extracts the combined therapy of A. indica and R. communis was found to be the most effective drugs followed by A. indica while R. communis was the least effective. The efficacy of different concentrations of R. communis, A. indica, A. indica + R. communis and standard drugs Pentostam and Amphotericin B on promastigotes of L. major is shown in Fig. 2. The optimal efficacy, concentration at optimal efficacy, IC90, IC50 of the extracts and standard drugs against promastigote forms of the parasite are shown in Table 2. There were significant differences in the optimal efficacy of the test drugs (p < 0.05). The optimal efficacy of the standard drugs was 98 and 96.5 % for amphotericin B and Pentostam respectively. Among the test extracts, combined therapy of A. indica and R. communis was the most effective against promastigote followed by A. indica while R. communis was the least effective. There was significant (p < 0.05) differences in the IC50 with the lowest IC50 occurring in A. indica + R. communis, followed by A. indica and least in R. communis among the known standard test drugs.Table 1

Bottom Line: The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies.Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively.An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Science (Parasitology), University of Eldoret, P.O Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya. benjumba@yahoo.co.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied.

Results: BALB/c mice, treated with combination therapy resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) larger reduction of lesion than those treated with monotherapies. The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies. Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively. Optimal efficacy of A. indica and R. communis was 72 and 59.5 % respectively, combination therapy gave 88 %, while Pentostam and amphotericin B had 98 and 92 % respectively against amastigotes. Against promastigotes A. indica and R. Communis gave an IC50 of 10.1, 25.5 µg mL(-1) respectively, while combination, 12.2 µg mL(-1) against 4.1 and 5.0 µg ml(-1) for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The optimal efficacy of the compounds against promastigotes was 78.0, 61.5 and 91.2 % (A. indica, R. communis and A. indica + R. communis respectively) against 96.5 and 98 % for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The concentrations at optimal efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the test compounds. An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects.

Conclusion: Combination therapy of A. indica and R. communis had best antileishmanial activity than the monotherapies. The active ingredients of both R. communis and A. indica need to be fractionated, and studied further for activity against Leishmania parasites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus