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Rational Phosphorus Application Facilitates the Sustainability of the Wheat/Maize/Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping System.

Chen Y, Zhou T, Zhang C, Wang K, Liu J, Lu J, Xu K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years.A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%.We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Nutrition and Microbiology, College of Resource Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/maize (Zea mays L.)/soybean (Glycine max L.) relay strip intercropping (W/M/S) system is commonly used by the smallholders in the Southwest of China. However, little known is how to manage phosphorus (P) to enhance P use efficiency of the W/M/S system and to mitigate P leaching that is a major source of pollution. Field experiments were carried out in 2011, 2012, and 2013 to test the impact of five P application rates on yield and P use efficiency of the W/M/S system. The study measured grain yield, shoot P uptake, apparent P recovery efficiency (PRE) and soil P content. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the critical P rate that maximizes gains in the indexes of system productivity. The results show that increase in P application rates aggrandized shoot P uptake and crops yields at threshold rates of 70 and 71.5 kg P ha-1 respectively. With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years. A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%. We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

No MeSH data available.


Soil Olsen-P in the top 20 cm layer of the maize strip at maize harvest (M) and the wheat-soybean strip at soybean harvest (W-S) in the W/M/S system as affected by P application rates each year.Different lower-case letters indicate significant difference (P<0.05) by LSD between different years under the same P application rate. Different capital letters indicate significant difference (p<0.05) by LSD between different P application rates. F = the first year (2011), S = the second year (2012), T = the third year (2013). P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 indicate the P treatments (as in table 2). Each value was the mean ± SE. Bars indicate standard errors.
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pone.0141725.g007: Soil Olsen-P in the top 20 cm layer of the maize strip at maize harvest (M) and the wheat-soybean strip at soybean harvest (W-S) in the W/M/S system as affected by P application rates each year.Different lower-case letters indicate significant difference (P<0.05) by LSD between different years under the same P application rate. Different capital letters indicate significant difference (p<0.05) by LSD between different P application rates. F = the first year (2011), S = the second year (2012), T = the third year (2013). P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 indicate the P treatments (as in table 2). Each value was the mean ± SE. Bars indicate standard errors.

Mentions: Soil Olsen-P concentration was not significantly different between the wheat-soybean strip and the maize strip across all P application rates over three growing seasons (Fig 7) (P>0.05). Increase in P application rate increased soil Olsen-P in both the maize and wheat-soybean strips in the 0–20 cm soil layer (Fig 7). In both wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P2 rate, the soil Olsen-P was consistently kept at about 19.1 mg kg-1 over the three years. However, both wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P0 or P1 rates, on average, reduced Olsen-P by 2.28 and 2.02 mg kg-1 respectively, in 2013 compared with the Olsen-P of those strips in 2011. Contrarily, both wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P3 rate increased soil Olsen-P by 2.02 and 6.03 mg kg-1 respectively. Wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P4 rate increased soil Olsen-P by 4.17 and 6.55 mg kg-1 in 2013, respectively, compared with the Olsen-P of those strips in 2011 (Fig 7).


Rational Phosphorus Application Facilitates the Sustainability of the Wheat/Maize/Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping System.

Chen Y, Zhou T, Zhang C, Wang K, Liu J, Lu J, Xu K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Soil Olsen-P in the top 20 cm layer of the maize strip at maize harvest (M) and the wheat-soybean strip at soybean harvest (W-S) in the W/M/S system as affected by P application rates each year.Different lower-case letters indicate significant difference (P<0.05) by LSD between different years under the same P application rate. Different capital letters indicate significant difference (p<0.05) by LSD between different P application rates. F = the first year (2011), S = the second year (2012), T = the third year (2013). P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 indicate the P treatments (as in table 2). Each value was the mean ± SE. Bars indicate standard errors.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4634977&req=5

pone.0141725.g007: Soil Olsen-P in the top 20 cm layer of the maize strip at maize harvest (M) and the wheat-soybean strip at soybean harvest (W-S) in the W/M/S system as affected by P application rates each year.Different lower-case letters indicate significant difference (P<0.05) by LSD between different years under the same P application rate. Different capital letters indicate significant difference (p<0.05) by LSD between different P application rates. F = the first year (2011), S = the second year (2012), T = the third year (2013). P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 indicate the P treatments (as in table 2). Each value was the mean ± SE. Bars indicate standard errors.
Mentions: Soil Olsen-P concentration was not significantly different between the wheat-soybean strip and the maize strip across all P application rates over three growing seasons (Fig 7) (P>0.05). Increase in P application rate increased soil Olsen-P in both the maize and wheat-soybean strips in the 0–20 cm soil layer (Fig 7). In both wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P2 rate, the soil Olsen-P was consistently kept at about 19.1 mg kg-1 over the three years. However, both wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P0 or P1 rates, on average, reduced Olsen-P by 2.28 and 2.02 mg kg-1 respectively, in 2013 compared with the Olsen-P of those strips in 2011. Contrarily, both wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P3 rate increased soil Olsen-P by 2.02 and 6.03 mg kg-1 respectively. Wheat-soybean and maize strips applied with P4 rate increased soil Olsen-P by 4.17 and 6.55 mg kg-1 in 2013, respectively, compared with the Olsen-P of those strips in 2011 (Fig 7).

Bottom Line: With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years.A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%.We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Nutrition and Microbiology, College of Resource Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/maize (Zea mays L.)/soybean (Glycine max L.) relay strip intercropping (W/M/S) system is commonly used by the smallholders in the Southwest of China. However, little known is how to manage phosphorus (P) to enhance P use efficiency of the W/M/S system and to mitigate P leaching that is a major source of pollution. Field experiments were carried out in 2011, 2012, and 2013 to test the impact of five P application rates on yield and P use efficiency of the W/M/S system. The study measured grain yield, shoot P uptake, apparent P recovery efficiency (PRE) and soil P content. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the critical P rate that maximizes gains in the indexes of system productivity. The results show that increase in P application rates aggrandized shoot P uptake and crops yields at threshold rates of 70 and 71.5 kg P ha-1 respectively. With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years. A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%. We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

No MeSH data available.