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Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

Jackrel SL, Wootton JT - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries.Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity.These results emphasize that biodiversity of riparian subsidies at the within and across species scale have the potential to affect aquatic ecosystems, although there are complex species-specific effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to alder, local intraspecific differences via decomposition, algal or invertebrate metrics were not observed consistently among maples. These results emphasize that biodiversity of riparian subsidies at the within and across species scale have the potential to affect aquatic ecosystems, although there are complex species-specific effects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biological responses to among species variation of leaf packs (mean ± 1 se).(A) Decomposition rates, (B) algal accrual and (C) aquatic invertebrate richness (Shannon’s diversity index) of alder (n = 24), vine maple (n = 24) and bigleaf maple (n = 24) in single and mixed species leaf packs (n = 12). Significant comparisons (P < 0.05) indicated by a star.
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pone.0142362.g001: Biological responses to among species variation of leaf packs (mean ± 1 se).(A) Decomposition rates, (B) algal accrual and (C) aquatic invertebrate richness (Shannon’s diversity index) of alder (n = 24), vine maple (n = 24) and bigleaf maple (n = 24) in single and mixed species leaf packs (n = 12). Significant comparisons (P < 0.05) indicated by a star.

Mentions: In the second experiment, bigleaf maple proportionately decomposed most slowly and vine maple decomposed most rapidly (one-way ANOVA: F3,38 = 4.04, p = 0.014, Tukey HSD: vine maple/bigleaf maple comparison, p < 0.01), although the total amount of weight loss was not different between species, owing to the larger leaves of bigleaf maple (Tukey HSD for the vine maple/bigleaf maple comparison, p = 0.108) (Fig 1a). Aligned with this pattern, bigleaf maple supported lower invertebrate diversity than vine maple (one-way ANOVA: F3,38 = 3.95, p = 0.015, Tukey HSD: vine maple/bigleaf maple comparison, p = 0.017) (Fig 1c), but harbored greater algal accrual than vine maple (one-way ANOVA: F3,38 = 3.56, p = 0.023, Tukey HSD: p = 0.039) and slightly greater algal accrual than alder (Tukey HSD: p = 0.090).


Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

Jackrel SL, Wootton JT - PLoS ONE (2015)

Biological responses to among species variation of leaf packs (mean ± 1 se).(A) Decomposition rates, (B) algal accrual and (C) aquatic invertebrate richness (Shannon’s diversity index) of alder (n = 24), vine maple (n = 24) and bigleaf maple (n = 24) in single and mixed species leaf packs (n = 12). Significant comparisons (P < 0.05) indicated by a star.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4634761&req=5

pone.0142362.g001: Biological responses to among species variation of leaf packs (mean ± 1 se).(A) Decomposition rates, (B) algal accrual and (C) aquatic invertebrate richness (Shannon’s diversity index) of alder (n = 24), vine maple (n = 24) and bigleaf maple (n = 24) in single and mixed species leaf packs (n = 12). Significant comparisons (P < 0.05) indicated by a star.
Mentions: In the second experiment, bigleaf maple proportionately decomposed most slowly and vine maple decomposed most rapidly (one-way ANOVA: F3,38 = 4.04, p = 0.014, Tukey HSD: vine maple/bigleaf maple comparison, p < 0.01), although the total amount of weight loss was not different between species, owing to the larger leaves of bigleaf maple (Tukey HSD for the vine maple/bigleaf maple comparison, p = 0.108) (Fig 1a). Aligned with this pattern, bigleaf maple supported lower invertebrate diversity than vine maple (one-way ANOVA: F3,38 = 3.95, p = 0.015, Tukey HSD: vine maple/bigleaf maple comparison, p = 0.017) (Fig 1c), but harbored greater algal accrual than vine maple (one-way ANOVA: F3,38 = 3.56, p = 0.023, Tukey HSD: p = 0.039) and slightly greater algal accrual than alder (Tukey HSD: p = 0.090).

Bottom Line: Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries.Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity.These results emphasize that biodiversity of riparian subsidies at the within and across species scale have the potential to affect aquatic ecosystems, although there are complex species-specific effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to alder, local intraspecific differences via decomposition, algal or invertebrate metrics were not observed consistently among maples. These results emphasize that biodiversity of riparian subsidies at the within and across species scale have the potential to affect aquatic ecosystems, although there are complex species-specific effects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus