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Corpora Amylacea in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Cause or Effect?

Rohn TT - Int J Neurol Neurother (2015)

Bottom Line: CA are reported to be primarily composed of glucose polymers, but approximately 4% of the total weight of CA is consistently composed of protein.Despite numerous efforts, the precise role of CA in normal aging or disease is not known.The purpose of this mini review is to highlight the potential function of CA in various neurodegenerative disorders with an emphasis on the potential role if any these structures may play in the etiology of these diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, USA.

ABSTRACT

The presence of corpora amylacea (CA) in the CNS is associated with both normal aging and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). CA are spherical bodies ranging in diameter (10-50 μm) and whose origin has been documented to be derived from both neural and glial sources. CA are reported to be primarily composed of glucose polymers, but approximately 4% of the total weight of CA is consistently composed of protein. CA are typically localized in the subpial, periventricular and perivascular regions within the CNS. The presence of CA in VaD has recently been documented and of interest was the localization of CA within the hippocampus proper. Despite numerous efforts, the precise role of CA in normal aging or disease is not known. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight the potential function of CA in various neurodegenerative disorders with an emphasis on the potential role if any these structures may play in the etiology of these diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Characteristic features of corpora amylacea in the CNS(A): CA are basophilic structures principally composed of polysaccharides and as such are easily identified using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent that labels CA as pink circular structures with varying diameters between 10–50μm. Depicted are numerous CA detected following labeling with PAS reagent in subpial regions in the hippocampus of a representative VaD case. Scale bar represents 10μm. (B): The major protein constituents that have been documented within CA are numerous and include both cytoskeletal proteins, stress proteins, and blood proteins.
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Figure 1: Characteristic features of corpora amylacea in the CNS(A): CA are basophilic structures principally composed of polysaccharides and as such are easily identified using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent that labels CA as pink circular structures with varying diameters between 10–50μm. Depicted are numerous CA detected following labeling with PAS reagent in subpial regions in the hippocampus of a representative VaD case. Scale bar represents 10μm. (B): The major protein constituents that have been documented within CA are numerous and include both cytoskeletal proteins, stress proteins, and blood proteins.

Mentions: Corpora amylacea (CA) were first described by Purkinje in 1837 in the brains of elderly patients. The presence of CA within the normal aging brain is well established and in addition, can also be seen in a variety of neurological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple sclerosis, hippocampal sclerosis and epilepsy [1–6]. Morphologically, CA represent as spherical translucent structures that range in diameter between 10–50μm with an average diameter of 15 μm [7,8]. Their internal structure is characterized by the presence of numerous short linear densities with a narrow rim of fibrils often seen at the periphery. Histochemical analysis indicates that CA are basophilic structures principally composed of polysaccharides and as such are easily identified using periodic acid-Schiff reagent or iodide (Figure 1A). In addition to polysaccharides, numerous proteins involved in aging and stress have been identified within CA including ubiquitin, heat-shock proteins [9], transglutaminases [10], anion exchange proteins [11], complement proteins [12], myelin basic protein [13], Bcl-2, c-Jun [14], NeuN [15], S100 proteins [16], thrombospondin-1, ADAMTS13 [17], reelin [18], tau [18–20], and alpha-synuclein [18] (Figure 1B).


Corpora Amylacea in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Cause or Effect?

Rohn TT - Int J Neurol Neurother (2015)

Characteristic features of corpora amylacea in the CNS(A): CA are basophilic structures principally composed of polysaccharides and as such are easily identified using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent that labels CA as pink circular structures with varying diameters between 10–50μm. Depicted are numerous CA detected following labeling with PAS reagent in subpial regions in the hippocampus of a representative VaD case. Scale bar represents 10μm. (B): The major protein constituents that have been documented within CA are numerous and include both cytoskeletal proteins, stress proteins, and blood proteins.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4634668&req=5

Figure 1: Characteristic features of corpora amylacea in the CNS(A): CA are basophilic structures principally composed of polysaccharides and as such are easily identified using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent that labels CA as pink circular structures with varying diameters between 10–50μm. Depicted are numerous CA detected following labeling with PAS reagent in subpial regions in the hippocampus of a representative VaD case. Scale bar represents 10μm. (B): The major protein constituents that have been documented within CA are numerous and include both cytoskeletal proteins, stress proteins, and blood proteins.
Mentions: Corpora amylacea (CA) were first described by Purkinje in 1837 in the brains of elderly patients. The presence of CA within the normal aging brain is well established and in addition, can also be seen in a variety of neurological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple sclerosis, hippocampal sclerosis and epilepsy [1–6]. Morphologically, CA represent as spherical translucent structures that range in diameter between 10–50μm with an average diameter of 15 μm [7,8]. Their internal structure is characterized by the presence of numerous short linear densities with a narrow rim of fibrils often seen at the periphery. Histochemical analysis indicates that CA are basophilic structures principally composed of polysaccharides and as such are easily identified using periodic acid-Schiff reagent or iodide (Figure 1A). In addition to polysaccharides, numerous proteins involved in aging and stress have been identified within CA including ubiquitin, heat-shock proteins [9], transglutaminases [10], anion exchange proteins [11], complement proteins [12], myelin basic protein [13], Bcl-2, c-Jun [14], NeuN [15], S100 proteins [16], thrombospondin-1, ADAMTS13 [17], reelin [18], tau [18–20], and alpha-synuclein [18] (Figure 1B).

Bottom Line: CA are reported to be primarily composed of glucose polymers, but approximately 4% of the total weight of CA is consistently composed of protein.Despite numerous efforts, the precise role of CA in normal aging or disease is not known.The purpose of this mini review is to highlight the potential function of CA in various neurodegenerative disorders with an emphasis on the potential role if any these structures may play in the etiology of these diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, USA.

ABSTRACT

The presence of corpora amylacea (CA) in the CNS is associated with both normal aging and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). CA are spherical bodies ranging in diameter (10-50 μm) and whose origin has been documented to be derived from both neural and glial sources. CA are reported to be primarily composed of glucose polymers, but approximately 4% of the total weight of CA is consistently composed of protein. CA are typically localized in the subpial, periventricular and perivascular regions within the CNS. The presence of CA in VaD has recently been documented and of interest was the localization of CA within the hippocampus proper. Despite numerous efforts, the precise role of CA in normal aging or disease is not known. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight the potential function of CA in various neurodegenerative disorders with an emphasis on the potential role if any these structures may play in the etiology of these diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus