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Relative Age Effect in UEFA Championship Soccer Players.

González-Víllora S, Pastor-Vicedo JC, Cordente D - J Hum Kinet (2015)

Bottom Line: In the past 20 years the existence of this effect has been shown with higher or smaller impact in multiple sports, including soccer.The results obtained by the square test ( the Kruskal-Wallis test and Cohen's effect sizes revealed the existence of RAE (χ(2) = 17.829, p < 0.001; d = 0.30), with the size of their different effects depending on their category or qualifying round achieved by the national team and the existence of significance in the observed differences by category.RAE was not evident in the professional teams analysed, however it was present in the three lower categories analysed (youth categories), with its influence being greater on younger age categories (U-17).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Teaching Education (Cuenca), University of Castilla-la Mancha, Spain. EDAF research group.

ABSTRACT
Relative Age Effect (RAE) is the breakdown by both age grouping and dates of birth of athletes. In the past 20 years the existence of this effect has been shown with higher or smaller impact in multiple sports, including soccer. The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of RAE in European soccer players. The sample included 841 elite soccer players who were participants in the UEFA European Soccer Championship in different categories. The professional category (n = 368), U-19 (n = 144) and U-17 (n = 145) were in 2012, and U-21 was in 2011 (n = 184). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Levene test recommended the use of nonparametric statistics. The results obtained by the square test ( the Kruskal-Wallis test and Cohen's effect sizes revealed the existence of RAE (χ(2) = 17.829, p < 0.001; d = 0.30), with the size of their different effects depending on their category or qualifying round achieved by the national team and the existence of significance in the observed differences by category. Therefore, we could continue examining RAE which is present in elite soccer, and could be considered a factor that influences performance of the national teams tested. RAE was not evident in the professional teams analysed, however it was present in the three lower categories analysed (youth categories), with its influence being greater on younger age categories (U-17).

No MeSH data available.


Distribution of soccer players per semester differentiated by category
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f1-jhk-47-237: Distribution of soccer players per semester differentiated by category

Mentions: Table 1 shows the players who participated in the different categories of the Eurocup, distributed by the quartile of birth. It should be noted that all categories showed a different distribution depending on the quartile in which players were born. However, only in the categories U-21, U-19 and U-17 the distribution of players was significantly different. This result was not enough to say that the observed differences were due to the existence of RAE. To identify this effect we calculated the effect size (d) comparing subjects from S1 to S2. With the intention to supplement the information showed in Table 1, Figure 1 was drawn, showing the distribution of players per semester, differentiated by category. This calculation reflected that RAE was present in the youth categories (U-21, U-19, U-17), with an average effect in the categories U-21 and U-19, and a higher effect in the U-17 category. Moreover, the Kruscal-Wallis test revealed the existence of significant differences among the four categories studied (χ2 = 17.829, p < 0.001).


Relative Age Effect in UEFA Championship Soccer Players.

González-Víllora S, Pastor-Vicedo JC, Cordente D - J Hum Kinet (2015)

Distribution of soccer players per semester differentiated by category
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4633259&req=5

f1-jhk-47-237: Distribution of soccer players per semester differentiated by category
Mentions: Table 1 shows the players who participated in the different categories of the Eurocup, distributed by the quartile of birth. It should be noted that all categories showed a different distribution depending on the quartile in which players were born. However, only in the categories U-21, U-19 and U-17 the distribution of players was significantly different. This result was not enough to say that the observed differences were due to the existence of RAE. To identify this effect we calculated the effect size (d) comparing subjects from S1 to S2. With the intention to supplement the information showed in Table 1, Figure 1 was drawn, showing the distribution of players per semester, differentiated by category. This calculation reflected that RAE was present in the youth categories (U-21, U-19, U-17), with an average effect in the categories U-21 and U-19, and a higher effect in the U-17 category. Moreover, the Kruscal-Wallis test revealed the existence of significant differences among the four categories studied (χ2 = 17.829, p < 0.001).

Bottom Line: In the past 20 years the existence of this effect has been shown with higher or smaller impact in multiple sports, including soccer.The results obtained by the square test ( the Kruskal-Wallis test and Cohen's effect sizes revealed the existence of RAE (χ(2) = 17.829, p < 0.001; d = 0.30), with the size of their different effects depending on their category or qualifying round achieved by the national team and the existence of significance in the observed differences by category.RAE was not evident in the professional teams analysed, however it was present in the three lower categories analysed (youth categories), with its influence being greater on younger age categories (U-17).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Teaching Education (Cuenca), University of Castilla-la Mancha, Spain. EDAF research group.

ABSTRACT
Relative Age Effect (RAE) is the breakdown by both age grouping and dates of birth of athletes. In the past 20 years the existence of this effect has been shown with higher or smaller impact in multiple sports, including soccer. The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of RAE in European soccer players. The sample included 841 elite soccer players who were participants in the UEFA European Soccer Championship in different categories. The professional category (n = 368), U-19 (n = 144) and U-17 (n = 145) were in 2012, and U-21 was in 2011 (n = 184). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Levene test recommended the use of nonparametric statistics. The results obtained by the square test ( the Kruskal-Wallis test and Cohen's effect sizes revealed the existence of RAE (χ(2) = 17.829, p < 0.001; d = 0.30), with the size of their different effects depending on their category or qualifying round achieved by the national team and the existence of significance in the observed differences by category. Therefore, we could continue examining RAE which is present in elite soccer, and could be considered a factor that influences performance of the national teams tested. RAE was not evident in the professional teams analysed, however it was present in the three lower categories analysed (youth categories), with its influence being greater on younger age categories (U-17).

No MeSH data available.