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Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals.

Danish LM, Heistermann M, Agil M, Engelhardt A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices.Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it.The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: German Primate Center, Junior Research Group Sexual Selection, Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new opportunities for field studies to incorporate physiological markers, particularly on smaller bodied and terrestrial animals and where urine collection is difficult.

No MeSH data available.


a) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette synthetic collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.93, p<0.001). b)Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette cotton collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.97, p<0.001). c) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from First aid collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.67, p = 0.071).
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pone.0142051.g001: a) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette synthetic collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.93, p<0.001). b)Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette cotton collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.97, p<0.001). c) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from First aid collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.67, p = 0.071).

Mentions: C-peptide per creatinine concentrations differed significantly between the control and samples collected in the collection devices (Friedman test, χ2 = 14.55, df = 3, p = 0.002) (Table 1), in that the C-peptide per creatinine concentration was significantly higher using the Salivette cotton collection device compared to the control (Wilcoxon test, V = 0, p = 0.008). C-peptide per creatinine concentration from the Salivette synthetic and First aid collection devices, however, did not differ significantly from the control (Wilcoxon tests,Salivette synthetic: V = 32, p = 0.055; First aid: V = 11, p = 0.383). The concentration of C-peptides per creatinine were significantly correlated with the controls for the Salivette synthetic (r = 0.93, p < 0.001, Fig 1A) and Salivette cotton collection devices (r = 0.97, p < 0.001, Fig 1B). The concentration of C-peptides per creatinine were not significantly correlated with the controls for the First aid collection device (r = 0.67, p = 0.071, Fig 1C).


Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals.

Danish LM, Heistermann M, Agil M, Engelhardt A - PLoS ONE (2015)

a) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette synthetic collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.93, p<0.001). b)Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette cotton collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.97, p<0.001). c) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from First aid collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.67, p = 0.071).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4633224&req=5

pone.0142051.g001: a) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette synthetic collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.93, p<0.001). b)Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from Salivette cotton collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.97, p<0.001). c) Correlation between urinary c-peptide per creatinine concentrations measured from controls and after recovery from First aid collection devices (Pearson correlation coefficient, rs = 0.67, p = 0.071).
Mentions: C-peptide per creatinine concentrations differed significantly between the control and samples collected in the collection devices (Friedman test, χ2 = 14.55, df = 3, p = 0.002) (Table 1), in that the C-peptide per creatinine concentration was significantly higher using the Salivette cotton collection device compared to the control (Wilcoxon test, V = 0, p = 0.008). C-peptide per creatinine concentration from the Salivette synthetic and First aid collection devices, however, did not differ significantly from the control (Wilcoxon tests,Salivette synthetic: V = 32, p = 0.055; First aid: V = 11, p = 0.383). The concentration of C-peptides per creatinine were significantly correlated with the controls for the Salivette synthetic (r = 0.93, p < 0.001, Fig 1A) and Salivette cotton collection devices (r = 0.97, p < 0.001, Fig 1B). The concentration of C-peptides per creatinine were not significantly correlated with the controls for the First aid collection device (r = 0.67, p = 0.071, Fig 1C).

Bottom Line: The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices.Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it.The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: German Primate Center, Junior Research Group Sexual Selection, Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new opportunities for field studies to incorporate physiological markers, particularly on smaller bodied and terrestrial animals and where urine collection is difficult.

No MeSH data available.