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Paliurus Fruits from the Oligocene of South China and Their Phytogeographic Implications.

Dong JL, Sun BN, Ma FJ, Wang QJ, Jin PH, Wang WJ, Deng P, Yang Y, Li XJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Characteristics of the present specimens include circular winged fruits that are 10.0-11.5 mm in diameter with a central endocarp at 3.0 to 4.0 mm in diameter.The specimens fall into the morphological range of the fossil species P. favonii, which has been observed in other Cenozoic sites in the Northern Hemisphere.The present discovery represents the lowest latitude distribution of P. favonii in the world, and we are presenting the first P. favonii fossil described with detailed cuticular characteristics from China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth Sciences & Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China (Gansu Province), Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

ABSTRACT
Paliurus favonii Unger is recognized and described based on fruits from the Oligocene Ningming flora of Guangxi, South China. Characteristics of the present specimens include circular winged fruits that are 10.0-11.5 mm in diameter with a central endocarp at 3.0 to 4.0 mm in diameter. The specimens fall into the morphological range of the fossil species P. favonii, which has been observed in other Cenozoic sites in the Northern Hemisphere. The present discovery represents the lowest latitude distribution of P. favonii in the world, and we are presenting the first P. favonii fossil described with detailed cuticular characteristics from China. Further, this finding demonstrates that the genus existed in the Oligocene Ningming region, South China, and provides new information for understanding the fossil history. The dispersal mode for winged fossils demonstrates that wind dispersal is well-represented in the Oligocene Ningming flora.

No MeSH data available.


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Fossil locality showing Ningming County of Guangxi, South China.
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pone.0140653.g002: Fossil locality showing Ningming County of Guangxi, South China.

Mentions: Three Paliurus fruit fossils were collected from the shallow lacustrine deposits of the Ningming Formation in the Ningming Basin (at 22°09′15.77″N, 107°01′23.11″E), Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China (Fig 2). The Ningming Formation is composed primarily of gray-dark gray mudstone with light yellow shaly siltstone and fine-grained sandstone. The precise age remains unknown due to a lack of volcanic rocks and mammals in the Ningming Formation stratum. Presently, scholars consider two hypotheses for the age of the Ningming Formation. On the one hand, the Ningming Formation is considered to be Miocene based on fish and bivalve fossils [11]; on the other hand, it is also considered to be of the Late Eocene to Oligocene based on the palynological assemblages [12]. Although the Ningming Formation age is hotly debated, previous studies on plant and fish fossils from the same stratum (e.g., Palaeocarya [13, 14], Bauhinia [15, 16], Cephalotaxus [17], Cupressus [18], Calocedrus [19], Ailanthus [20], Laurophyllum [21], Buxus [22], Chuniophoenix, Livistona [23], Ecocarpia [24] and Huashancyprinus [25]) support the notion that the Ningming Formation belongs to the Oligocene age, which is adopted in this paper.


Paliurus Fruits from the Oligocene of South China and Their Phytogeographic Implications.

Dong JL, Sun BN, Ma FJ, Wang QJ, Jin PH, Wang WJ, Deng P, Yang Y, Li XJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Fossil locality showing Ningming County of Guangxi, South China.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4633219&req=5

pone.0140653.g002: Fossil locality showing Ningming County of Guangxi, South China.
Mentions: Three Paliurus fruit fossils were collected from the shallow lacustrine deposits of the Ningming Formation in the Ningming Basin (at 22°09′15.77″N, 107°01′23.11″E), Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China (Fig 2). The Ningming Formation is composed primarily of gray-dark gray mudstone with light yellow shaly siltstone and fine-grained sandstone. The precise age remains unknown due to a lack of volcanic rocks and mammals in the Ningming Formation stratum. Presently, scholars consider two hypotheses for the age of the Ningming Formation. On the one hand, the Ningming Formation is considered to be Miocene based on fish and bivalve fossils [11]; on the other hand, it is also considered to be of the Late Eocene to Oligocene based on the palynological assemblages [12]. Although the Ningming Formation age is hotly debated, previous studies on plant and fish fossils from the same stratum (e.g., Palaeocarya [13, 14], Bauhinia [15, 16], Cephalotaxus [17], Cupressus [18], Calocedrus [19], Ailanthus [20], Laurophyllum [21], Buxus [22], Chuniophoenix, Livistona [23], Ecocarpia [24] and Huashancyprinus [25]) support the notion that the Ningming Formation belongs to the Oligocene age, which is adopted in this paper.

Bottom Line: Characteristics of the present specimens include circular winged fruits that are 10.0-11.5 mm in diameter with a central endocarp at 3.0 to 4.0 mm in diameter.The specimens fall into the morphological range of the fossil species P. favonii, which has been observed in other Cenozoic sites in the Northern Hemisphere.The present discovery represents the lowest latitude distribution of P. favonii in the world, and we are presenting the first P. favonii fossil described with detailed cuticular characteristics from China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth Sciences & Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China (Gansu Province), Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

ABSTRACT
Paliurus favonii Unger is recognized and described based on fruits from the Oligocene Ningming flora of Guangxi, South China. Characteristics of the present specimens include circular winged fruits that are 10.0-11.5 mm in diameter with a central endocarp at 3.0 to 4.0 mm in diameter. The specimens fall into the morphological range of the fossil species P. favonii, which has been observed in other Cenozoic sites in the Northern Hemisphere. The present discovery represents the lowest latitude distribution of P. favonii in the world, and we are presenting the first P. favonii fossil described with detailed cuticular characteristics from China. Further, this finding demonstrates that the genus existed in the Oligocene Ningming region, South China, and provides new information for understanding the fossil history. The dispersal mode for winged fossils demonstrates that wind dispersal is well-represented in the Oligocene Ningming flora.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus