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Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

Pang W, Kim YY, Li X, Choi SR, Wang Y, Sung CK, Im S, Ramchiary N, Zhou G, Lim YP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages.In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other.These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Genetics and Genomics Lab, Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line "747" is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line "748" is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of "747" were larger than those of "748" at the pre-heading and maturity stages. "747" had thinner epidermis cell wall than "748" at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Petiole epidermis cell size and cell wall thickness in Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. at pre-heading and maturity stages.Pre-heading stage of “747” (A) and “748” (B); mature stage of “747” (C) and “748” (D); head-splitting plants of F1 (E) and F2 (F) at maturity.
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pone.0142202.g004: Petiole epidermis cell size and cell wall thickness in Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. at pre-heading and maturity stages.Pre-heading stage of “747” (A) and “748” (B); mature stage of “747” (C) and “748” (D); head-splitting plants of F1 (E) and F2 (F) at maturity.

Mentions: We also tried to compare the epidermis cell structures between head splitting and non-head splitting individuals flowing the growing stages. Epidermis cell structures were observed in “747” and “748” at the pre-heading and maturity stages, and in head-splitting and non-head-splitting plants from the F1 and F2 population at the maturity stage (Figs 4 and 5; S1 and S2 Figs). The lower epidermis cells and hypodermis cells of “747” were larger than those of “748” at the pre-heading and maturity stages (Fig 4). The lower epidermis cell walls were significantly thinner in “747” than in “748” at maturity (Fig 5). Compared with non-head-splitting individuals, head-splitting individuals had thinner lower epidermis cell walls (Fig 5). The epidermal cell wall thickness differed significantly between head-splitting and non-head-splitting individuals at maturity (Fig 5). Taken together, the head-splitting plants had larger lower epidermis cells and hypodermis cells, as well as thinner lower epidermis cell walls than non-head-splitting plants.


Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

Pang W, Kim YY, Li X, Choi SR, Wang Y, Sung CK, Im S, Ramchiary N, Zhou G, Lim YP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Petiole epidermis cell size and cell wall thickness in Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. at pre-heading and maturity stages.Pre-heading stage of “747” (A) and “748” (B); mature stage of “747” (C) and “748” (D); head-splitting plants of F1 (E) and F2 (F) at maturity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4633201&req=5

pone.0142202.g004: Petiole epidermis cell size and cell wall thickness in Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. at pre-heading and maturity stages.Pre-heading stage of “747” (A) and “748” (B); mature stage of “747” (C) and “748” (D); head-splitting plants of F1 (E) and F2 (F) at maturity.
Mentions: We also tried to compare the epidermis cell structures between head splitting and non-head splitting individuals flowing the growing stages. Epidermis cell structures were observed in “747” and “748” at the pre-heading and maturity stages, and in head-splitting and non-head-splitting plants from the F1 and F2 population at the maturity stage (Figs 4 and 5; S1 and S2 Figs). The lower epidermis cells and hypodermis cells of “747” were larger than those of “748” at the pre-heading and maturity stages (Fig 4). The lower epidermis cell walls were significantly thinner in “747” than in “748” at maturity (Fig 5). Compared with non-head-splitting individuals, head-splitting individuals had thinner lower epidermis cell walls (Fig 5). The epidermal cell wall thickness differed significantly between head-splitting and non-head-splitting individuals at maturity (Fig 5). Taken together, the head-splitting plants had larger lower epidermis cells and hypodermis cells, as well as thinner lower epidermis cell walls than non-head-splitting plants.

Bottom Line: The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages.In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other.These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Genetics and Genomics Lab, Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line "747" is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line "748" is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of "747" were larger than those of "748" at the pre-heading and maturity stages. "747" had thinner epidermis cell wall than "748" at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus