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Being Sticker Rich: Numerical Context Influences Children's Sharing Behavior.

Posid T, Fazio A, Cordes S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The proportion of resources donated, however, did vary based on the number of recipients with whom they were allowed to share, such that on average, children shared more when there were more recipients available, particularly when they had more resources, suggesting they take others into consideration when making prosocial decisions.Finally, results indicated that a child's gender also predicted sharing behavior, with males generally sharing more resources than females.Together, findings suggest that the numerical contexts under which children are asked to share, as well as the quantity of resources that they have to share, may interact to promote (or hinder) altruistic behaviors throughout childhood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Young children spontaneously share resources with anonymous recipients, but little is known about the specific circumstances that promote or hinder these prosocial tendencies. Children (ages 3-11) received a small (12) or large (30) number of stickers, and were then given the opportunity to share their windfall with either one or multiple anonymous recipients (Dictator Game). Whether a child chose to share or not varied as a function of age, but was uninfluenced by numerical context. Moreover, children's giving was consistent with a proportion-based account, such that children typically donated a similar proportion (but different absolute number) of the resources given to them, regardless of whether they originally received a small or large windfall. The proportion of resources donated, however, did vary based on the number of recipients with whom they were allowed to share, such that on average, children shared more when there were more recipients available, particularly when they had more resources, suggesting they take others into consideration when making prosocial decisions. Finally, results indicated that a child's gender also predicted sharing behavior, with males generally sharing more resources than females. Together, findings suggest that the numerical contexts under which children are asked to share, as well as the quantity of resources that they have to share, may interact to promote (or hinder) altruistic behaviors throughout childhood.

No MeSH data available.


The frequency of children who donated the indicated number of stickers per age group in the 12-sticker (left panel) and 30-sticker (right panel) conditions.
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pone.0138928.g002: The frequency of children who donated the indicated number of stickers per age group in the 12-sticker (left panel) and 30-sticker (right panel) conditions.

Mentions: A univariate ANOVA was conducted investigating the impact of the between-subjects factors of age (4: 3–4 years, 5–6 years, 7–8 years, 9–11 years), number of resources (2: 12 or 30 stickers), number of recipients (2: 1 or 2 anonymous recipients), and gender (2: female, male) on the proportion of resources shared. Results reveal that, in contrast to previous findings from studies with more limited age ranges [1], age significantly contributed to sharing behavior (F(3, 299) = 12.3, p < 0.001, = 0.110), such that children shared a greater proportion of their resources with age (Fig 1). In addition, the number of recipients significantly impacted children’s giving (F(1, 299) = 9.66, p = 0.002, = 0.031), such that children shared a greater proportion, on average, when presented with two recipients (M = 0.521) compared to when there was only a single recipient (M = 0.443). Moreover, the number of resources provided to the child did not singularly affect the proportion they shared (F(1, 299) = 0.125, p = 0.724, = 0.00), with children sharing a comparable proportion of resources when initially given 12 stickers (M = 0.478) as when they were given 30 stickers (M = 0.485), suggestive of a proportion-based strategy. This pattern did not vary as a function of age (age X number of resources interaction, p > 0.4) as might have been predicted by previous work on children’s views of others sharing behaviors [21]. Follow-up analyses confirmed that the proportion of stickers shared in the 12–1 and 30–1 conditions did not differ for any of the four age groups (all p’s>.18), nor did it differ for the 12–2 and 30–2 conditions in any age group (all p’s>.3, except 9–11 year olds p = .023, NS with Bonferroni correction). In contrast, when identical analyses compared the absolute number of stickers shared, significant differences were found between the 12–1 and 30–1 conditions and between the 12–2 and 30–2 conditions for each of the 4 age groups (all p’s≤0.001, all significant with Bonferroni correction). See Fig 2 and Table 1 for a breakdown of giving per age and condition.


Being Sticker Rich: Numerical Context Influences Children's Sharing Behavior.

Posid T, Fazio A, Cordes S - PLoS ONE (2015)

The frequency of children who donated the indicated number of stickers per age group in the 12-sticker (left panel) and 30-sticker (right panel) conditions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4633172&req=5

pone.0138928.g002: The frequency of children who donated the indicated number of stickers per age group in the 12-sticker (left panel) and 30-sticker (right panel) conditions.
Mentions: A univariate ANOVA was conducted investigating the impact of the between-subjects factors of age (4: 3–4 years, 5–6 years, 7–8 years, 9–11 years), number of resources (2: 12 or 30 stickers), number of recipients (2: 1 or 2 anonymous recipients), and gender (2: female, male) on the proportion of resources shared. Results reveal that, in contrast to previous findings from studies with more limited age ranges [1], age significantly contributed to sharing behavior (F(3, 299) = 12.3, p < 0.001, = 0.110), such that children shared a greater proportion of their resources with age (Fig 1). In addition, the number of recipients significantly impacted children’s giving (F(1, 299) = 9.66, p = 0.002, = 0.031), such that children shared a greater proportion, on average, when presented with two recipients (M = 0.521) compared to when there was only a single recipient (M = 0.443). Moreover, the number of resources provided to the child did not singularly affect the proportion they shared (F(1, 299) = 0.125, p = 0.724, = 0.00), with children sharing a comparable proportion of resources when initially given 12 stickers (M = 0.478) as when they were given 30 stickers (M = 0.485), suggestive of a proportion-based strategy. This pattern did not vary as a function of age (age X number of resources interaction, p > 0.4) as might have been predicted by previous work on children’s views of others sharing behaviors [21]. Follow-up analyses confirmed that the proportion of stickers shared in the 12–1 and 30–1 conditions did not differ for any of the four age groups (all p’s>.18), nor did it differ for the 12–2 and 30–2 conditions in any age group (all p’s>.3, except 9–11 year olds p = .023, NS with Bonferroni correction). In contrast, when identical analyses compared the absolute number of stickers shared, significant differences were found between the 12–1 and 30–1 conditions and between the 12–2 and 30–2 conditions for each of the 4 age groups (all p’s≤0.001, all significant with Bonferroni correction). See Fig 2 and Table 1 for a breakdown of giving per age and condition.

Bottom Line: The proportion of resources donated, however, did vary based on the number of recipients with whom they were allowed to share, such that on average, children shared more when there were more recipients available, particularly when they had more resources, suggesting they take others into consideration when making prosocial decisions.Finally, results indicated that a child's gender also predicted sharing behavior, with males generally sharing more resources than females.Together, findings suggest that the numerical contexts under which children are asked to share, as well as the quantity of resources that they have to share, may interact to promote (or hinder) altruistic behaviors throughout childhood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Young children spontaneously share resources with anonymous recipients, but little is known about the specific circumstances that promote or hinder these prosocial tendencies. Children (ages 3-11) received a small (12) or large (30) number of stickers, and were then given the opportunity to share their windfall with either one or multiple anonymous recipients (Dictator Game). Whether a child chose to share or not varied as a function of age, but was uninfluenced by numerical context. Moreover, children's giving was consistent with a proportion-based account, such that children typically donated a similar proportion (but different absolute number) of the resources given to them, regardless of whether they originally received a small or large windfall. The proportion of resources donated, however, did vary based on the number of recipients with whom they were allowed to share, such that on average, children shared more when there were more recipients available, particularly when they had more resources, suggesting they take others into consideration when making prosocial decisions. Finally, results indicated that a child's gender also predicted sharing behavior, with males generally sharing more resources than females. Together, findings suggest that the numerical contexts under which children are asked to share, as well as the quantity of resources that they have to share, may interact to promote (or hinder) altruistic behaviors throughout childhood.

No MeSH data available.