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The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

Li Y, Zhang B, Cheng H, Zheng J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally.We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze.It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory (Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education), Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

No MeSH data available.


Date versus silica-alumina ratio in bodies of impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain (wt%).During Xia and Shang dynasties, the ratio was not stabilized, while the subsequent development witnessed a continuous rise from 4.2 to 5.1.
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pone.0139970.g005: Date versus silica-alumina ratio in bodies of impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain (wt%).During Xia and Shang dynasties, the ratio was not stabilized, while the subsequent development witnessed a continuous rise from 4.2 to 5.1.

Mentions: According to principal components analysis, the raw materials of the bodies were procured locally. The contents of silicon dioxide and aluminium(III) oxide together account for over 90 wt% of the total composition, thus the two main components best characterised the raw materials. The silica-alumina ratio fluctuated between 3.9 and 5.1 from the Xia to the Warring States period, as shown in Fig 5. During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the ratio was not stabilised, while the subsequent development witnessed a continuous rise from 4.2 to 5.1. Meanwhile, a prominent trend in the chemical composition was the consecutive decline of the iron(III) oxide content. This contributed to higher whiteness of the bodies. The preferred formula composition was not completely established during the Xia and Shang dynasties, as the iron(III) oxide level sharply decreasing from 4.29 wt% to 2.53 wt%. In Fig 6, from the Shang to the Warring States period, the iron(III) oxide content maintained a relatively stable level of 2–3 wt%, during which only the Tingziqiao kiln used raw material with higher than average iron(III) oxide content (2.59 wt%). Afterwards, the iron(III) oxide content of typical ceramics in southern China remained about the same (2 wt%) for the next thousand years[41]. In addition, from the Xia to the Warring States period, for magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, titanium and manganese, only small fluctuations in the concentration of their oxides have been observed, suggesting that the geologic conditions of the sources of the raw material stayed almost unchanged for more than a thousand years. Given all that, it seemed that the ancients tried to look for better raw material from mineral resources with no significant differences. The appropriate formula composition was later derived through trial and error. Eventually, the persistent pursuit of optimal raw material led to the emergence of mature ceramics in East Han dynasty [49].


The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

Li Y, Zhang B, Cheng H, Zheng J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Date versus silica-alumina ratio in bodies of impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain (wt%).During Xia and Shang dynasties, the ratio was not stabilized, while the subsequent development witnessed a continuous rise from 4.2 to 5.1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4633156&req=5

pone.0139970.g005: Date versus silica-alumina ratio in bodies of impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain (wt%).During Xia and Shang dynasties, the ratio was not stabilized, while the subsequent development witnessed a continuous rise from 4.2 to 5.1.
Mentions: According to principal components analysis, the raw materials of the bodies were procured locally. The contents of silicon dioxide and aluminium(III) oxide together account for over 90 wt% of the total composition, thus the two main components best characterised the raw materials. The silica-alumina ratio fluctuated between 3.9 and 5.1 from the Xia to the Warring States period, as shown in Fig 5. During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the ratio was not stabilised, while the subsequent development witnessed a continuous rise from 4.2 to 5.1. Meanwhile, a prominent trend in the chemical composition was the consecutive decline of the iron(III) oxide content. This contributed to higher whiteness of the bodies. The preferred formula composition was not completely established during the Xia and Shang dynasties, as the iron(III) oxide level sharply decreasing from 4.29 wt% to 2.53 wt%. In Fig 6, from the Shang to the Warring States period, the iron(III) oxide content maintained a relatively stable level of 2–3 wt%, during which only the Tingziqiao kiln used raw material with higher than average iron(III) oxide content (2.59 wt%). Afterwards, the iron(III) oxide content of typical ceramics in southern China remained about the same (2 wt%) for the next thousand years[41]. In addition, from the Xia to the Warring States period, for magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, titanium and manganese, only small fluctuations in the concentration of their oxides have been observed, suggesting that the geologic conditions of the sources of the raw material stayed almost unchanged for more than a thousand years. Given all that, it seemed that the ancients tried to look for better raw material from mineral resources with no significant differences. The appropriate formula composition was later derived through trial and error. Eventually, the persistent pursuit of optimal raw material led to the emergence of mature ceramics in East Han dynasty [49].

Bottom Line: The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally.We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze.It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory (Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education), Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

No MeSH data available.