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Genomic Correlates of Virulence Attenuation in the Deadly Amphibian Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Refsnider JM, Poorten TJ, Langhammer PF, Burrowes PA, Rosenblum EB - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results suggest that genomic processes proposed as mechanisms for rapid evolution in Bd are correlated with virulence attenuation in laboratory culture within a single lineage of Bd.On a practical level, our results underscore the importance of immediately cryo-archiving new Bd isolates and using fresh isolates, rather than samples cultured in the laboratory for long periods, for laboratory infection experiments.Finally, when attempting to predict disease outcomes for this ecologically important pathogen, it is critical to consider existing variation in virulence among isolates and the potential for shifts in virulence over short timescales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-3114.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis genes that were up-regulated in the presence of frog skin showed greater-than-expected frequency of indels in the JEL427-P39 (compared with the JEL427-P9) isolate. The x-axis clusters genes based on their differential expression profiles in a previous study (Rosenblum et al. 2012), where “up-regulation” implies increased gene expression when grown on frog skin compared to standard tryptone growth medium. The y-axis shows number of indels. The asterisk indicates the genes that were up-regulated in frog skin had a significantly greater number of indels.
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fig4: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis genes that were up-regulated in the presence of frog skin showed greater-than-expected frequency of indels in the JEL427-P39 (compared with the JEL427-P9) isolate. The x-axis clusters genes based on their differential expression profiles in a previous study (Rosenblum et al. 2012), where “up-regulation” implies increased gene expression when grown on frog skin compared to standard tryptone growth medium. The y-axis shows number of indels. The asterisk indicates the genes that were up-regulated in frog skin had a significantly greater number of indels.

Mentions: In the gene expression analysis with indels, there was a weak significant effect of increased gene expression level on indel occurrence (Figure 4, P = 0.048). We found a significant enrichment of GO terms “proteolysis” and “protein metabolic process” in the gene list of genes with increased expression and indels; however, we note that there were only two genes in the proteolysis gene set and three genes in the protein metabolic process gene set (P = 0.029 for both GO terms). For the analysis including all indel-containing genes (regardless of expression), we found the list of genes containing exonic indels was overenriched for the GO terms related to proteolysis and metabolism (Table 1).


Genomic Correlates of Virulence Attenuation in the Deadly Amphibian Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Refsnider JM, Poorten TJ, Langhammer PF, Burrowes PA, Rosenblum EB - G3 (Bethesda) (2015)

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis genes that were up-regulated in the presence of frog skin showed greater-than-expected frequency of indels in the JEL427-P39 (compared with the JEL427-P9) isolate. The x-axis clusters genes based on their differential expression profiles in a previous study (Rosenblum et al. 2012), where “up-regulation” implies increased gene expression when grown on frog skin compared to standard tryptone growth medium. The y-axis shows number of indels. The asterisk indicates the genes that were up-regulated in frog skin had a significantly greater number of indels.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4632049&req=5

fig4: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis genes that were up-regulated in the presence of frog skin showed greater-than-expected frequency of indels in the JEL427-P39 (compared with the JEL427-P9) isolate. The x-axis clusters genes based on their differential expression profiles in a previous study (Rosenblum et al. 2012), where “up-regulation” implies increased gene expression when grown on frog skin compared to standard tryptone growth medium. The y-axis shows number of indels. The asterisk indicates the genes that were up-regulated in frog skin had a significantly greater number of indels.
Mentions: In the gene expression analysis with indels, there was a weak significant effect of increased gene expression level on indel occurrence (Figure 4, P = 0.048). We found a significant enrichment of GO terms “proteolysis” and “protein metabolic process” in the gene list of genes with increased expression and indels; however, we note that there were only two genes in the proteolysis gene set and three genes in the protein metabolic process gene set (P = 0.029 for both GO terms). For the analysis including all indel-containing genes (regardless of expression), we found the list of genes containing exonic indels was overenriched for the GO terms related to proteolysis and metabolism (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Our results suggest that genomic processes proposed as mechanisms for rapid evolution in Bd are correlated with virulence attenuation in laboratory culture within a single lineage of Bd.On a practical level, our results underscore the importance of immediately cryo-archiving new Bd isolates and using fresh isolates, rather than samples cultured in the laboratory for long periods, for laboratory infection experiments.Finally, when attempting to predict disease outcomes for this ecologically important pathogen, it is critical to consider existing variation in virulence among isolates and the potential for shifts in virulence over short timescales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-3114.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus