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Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching.

Shin YS, Chang WD, Park J, Im CH, Lee SI, Kim IY, Jang DP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition.The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects' visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line.In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects' visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie.

No MeSH data available.


Pre-processing of eye blink data.(A) Raster plot of eye blinks. (B) IEBI plot aligned to the center time point (red bar) as a representative sample of IEBIs. (C) Continuous plot of IEBI filtered with a Gaussian kernel after normalization to the average IEBI.
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pone.0141242.g001: Pre-processing of eye blink data.(A) Raster plot of eye blinks. (B) IEBI plot aligned to the center time point (red bar) as a representative sample of IEBIs. (C) Continuous plot of IEBI filtered with a Gaussian kernel after normalization to the average IEBI.

Mentions: Electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded over 12 channels using g.MOBIlab (g.tec Medical Engineering GmbH, Graz, Austria). Eye blink data were measured from electromyography signals in EEG channels. The eye blink component was extracted from the FP1 and FP2 electrodes by a template-matching algorithm that used dynamic positional warping to identify specific patterns in the EEG [20]. The data were analyzed offline using MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA). After detecting eye blinks, we calculated the number of eye blinks per second in order to reduce data size. The number of eye blinks per second was converted to IEBI and aligned to the center time point in order to depict a representative sampling of IEBIs (Fig 1). To compare the three tasks (REST, CONTROL, and MOVIE), we employed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test using the kstest2() Matlab function which does not assume a normal distribution. For further analysis, each subject’s MOVIE IEBI was normalized to the average of their MOVIE IEBI. Additionally, IEBI data were filtered with a Gaussian kernel. We made a 60 point Gaussian window with 4 proportional to the reciprocal of the standard deviation using the gausswin() Matlab function. The filtered IEBIs of all subjects were averaged. A random permutation test [21] was used to establish statistical significance (p < 0.01) of the peak time series. In addition, Pearson’s correlation was used to validate the relationship between IEBI and memory capacity for 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie.


Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching.

Shin YS, Chang WD, Park J, Im CH, Lee SI, Kim IY, Jang DP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Pre-processing of eye blink data.(A) Raster plot of eye blinks. (B) IEBI plot aligned to the center time point (red bar) as a representative sample of IEBIs. (C) Continuous plot of IEBI filtered with a Gaussian kernel after normalization to the average IEBI.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631519&req=5

pone.0141242.g001: Pre-processing of eye blink data.(A) Raster plot of eye blinks. (B) IEBI plot aligned to the center time point (red bar) as a representative sample of IEBIs. (C) Continuous plot of IEBI filtered with a Gaussian kernel after normalization to the average IEBI.
Mentions: Electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded over 12 channels using g.MOBIlab (g.tec Medical Engineering GmbH, Graz, Austria). Eye blink data were measured from electromyography signals in EEG channels. The eye blink component was extracted from the FP1 and FP2 electrodes by a template-matching algorithm that used dynamic positional warping to identify specific patterns in the EEG [20]. The data were analyzed offline using MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA). After detecting eye blinks, we calculated the number of eye blinks per second in order to reduce data size. The number of eye blinks per second was converted to IEBI and aligned to the center time point in order to depict a representative sampling of IEBIs (Fig 1). To compare the three tasks (REST, CONTROL, and MOVIE), we employed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test using the kstest2() Matlab function which does not assume a normal distribution. For further analysis, each subject’s MOVIE IEBI was normalized to the average of their MOVIE IEBI. Additionally, IEBI data were filtered with a Gaussian kernel. We made a 60 point Gaussian window with 4 proportional to the reciprocal of the standard deviation using the gausswin() Matlab function. The filtered IEBIs of all subjects were averaged. A random permutation test [21] was used to establish statistical significance (p < 0.01) of the peak time series. In addition, Pearson’s correlation was used to validate the relationship between IEBI and memory capacity for 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie.

Bottom Line: The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition.The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects' visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line.In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects' visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie.

No MeSH data available.