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Temporal Effects of a Begomovirus Infection and Host Plant Resistance on the Preference and Development of an Insect Vector, Bemisia tabaci, and Implications for Epidemics.

Legarrea S, Barman A, Marchant W, Diffie S, Srinivasan R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, it remains unclear how these virus-induced modulations on vectors vary temporally, and whether host resistance to the pathogen influences such effects.Together, these results suggest that vector preference and development could be affected by the timing of infection and by host resistance.These effects could play a crucial role in TYLCV epidemics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Tifton, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Persistent plant viruses, by altering phenotypic and physiological traits of their hosts, could modulate the host preference and fitness of hemipteran vectors. A majority of such modulations increase vector preference for virus-infected plants and improve vector fitness, ultimately favouring virus spread. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how these virus-induced modulations on vectors vary temporally, and whether host resistance to the pathogen influences such effects. This study addressed the two questions using a Begomovirus-whitefly-tomato model pathosystem. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) -susceptible and TYLCV-resistant tomato genotypes were evaluated by whitefly-mediated transmission assays. Quantitative PCR revealed that virus accumulation decreased after an initial spike in all genotypes. TYLCV accumulation was less in resistant than in susceptible genotypes at 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation (WPI). TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies over time from resistant and susceptible genotypes was also consistent with virus accumulation in the host plant. Furthermore, preference assays indicated that non-viruliferous whiteflies preferred virus-infected plants, whereas viruliferous whiteflies preferred non-infected plants. However, this effect was prominent only with the susceptible genotype at 6 WPI. The development of whiteflies on non-infected susceptible and resistant genotypes was not significantly different. However, developmental time was reduced when a susceptible genotype was infected with TYLCV. Together, these results suggest that vector preference and development could be affected by the timing of infection and by host resistance. These effects could play a crucial role in TYLCV epidemics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Settling of viruliferous whiteflies (B. tabaci).Bars with standard errors indicate percent settling of viruliferous whiteflies on TYLCV-infected (black bars) or non-infected (grey bars) leaves of a TYLCV-resistant (Security) and a susceptible (Florida 47) genotype 24h post release. Panels show whitefly settling on infected and non-infected plants after 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation, respectively. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments at α = 0.05 based on least square means.
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pone.0142114.g006: Settling of viruliferous whiteflies (B. tabaci).Bars with standard errors indicate percent settling of viruliferous whiteflies on TYLCV-infected (black bars) or non-infected (grey bars) leaves of a TYLCV-resistant (Security) and a susceptible (Florida 47) genotype 24h post release. Panels show whitefly settling on infected and non-infected plants after 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation, respectively. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments at α = 0.05 based on least square means.

Mentions: More viruliferous whiteflies settled on non-infected leaves, a converse effect than what we observed with non-viruliferous whiteflies, which preferred to settle on TYLCV symptomatic leaves (Fig 6). At three weeks post inoculation, viruliferous whiteflies preferentially settled on non-infected leaves versus TYLCV-infected leaves of both the susceptible (Χ2 = 65.94; df = 1,28; P<0.0001) and the resistant genotype (Χ2 = 58.60; df = 1,28; P<0.0001), respectively. Similarly, at 6 weeks post inoculation, viruliferous whiteflies preferentially settled on non-infected leaves when compared with TYLCV-infected leaves of Florida 47 (Χ2 = 255.57; df = 1,28; P<0.0001). However, this difference was not significant on Security (Χ2 = 2.94; df = 1,28; P = 0.0867). At 12 weeks post inoculation, settling preference of viruliferous whiteflies switched towards infected leaves in the case of Florida 47 (Χ2 = 26.62; df = 1,28; P<0.0001). In contrast, in the case of the resistant genotype, Security, more whitefly settling was observed on non-infected leaves than on TYLCV-infected leaves (Χ2 = 17.51; df = 1,13; P<0.0001).


Temporal Effects of a Begomovirus Infection and Host Plant Resistance on the Preference and Development of an Insect Vector, Bemisia tabaci, and Implications for Epidemics.

Legarrea S, Barman A, Marchant W, Diffie S, Srinivasan R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Settling of viruliferous whiteflies (B. tabaci).Bars with standard errors indicate percent settling of viruliferous whiteflies on TYLCV-infected (black bars) or non-infected (grey bars) leaves of a TYLCV-resistant (Security) and a susceptible (Florida 47) genotype 24h post release. Panels show whitefly settling on infected and non-infected plants after 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation, respectively. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments at α = 0.05 based on least square means.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631503&req=5

pone.0142114.g006: Settling of viruliferous whiteflies (B. tabaci).Bars with standard errors indicate percent settling of viruliferous whiteflies on TYLCV-infected (black bars) or non-infected (grey bars) leaves of a TYLCV-resistant (Security) and a susceptible (Florida 47) genotype 24h post release. Panels show whitefly settling on infected and non-infected plants after 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation, respectively. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments at α = 0.05 based on least square means.
Mentions: More viruliferous whiteflies settled on non-infected leaves, a converse effect than what we observed with non-viruliferous whiteflies, which preferred to settle on TYLCV symptomatic leaves (Fig 6). At three weeks post inoculation, viruliferous whiteflies preferentially settled on non-infected leaves versus TYLCV-infected leaves of both the susceptible (Χ2 = 65.94; df = 1,28; P<0.0001) and the resistant genotype (Χ2 = 58.60; df = 1,28; P<0.0001), respectively. Similarly, at 6 weeks post inoculation, viruliferous whiteflies preferentially settled on non-infected leaves when compared with TYLCV-infected leaves of Florida 47 (Χ2 = 255.57; df = 1,28; P<0.0001). However, this difference was not significant on Security (Χ2 = 2.94; df = 1,28; P = 0.0867). At 12 weeks post inoculation, settling preference of viruliferous whiteflies switched towards infected leaves in the case of Florida 47 (Χ2 = 26.62; df = 1,28; P<0.0001). In contrast, in the case of the resistant genotype, Security, more whitefly settling was observed on non-infected leaves than on TYLCV-infected leaves (Χ2 = 17.51; df = 1,13; P<0.0001).

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, it remains unclear how these virus-induced modulations on vectors vary temporally, and whether host resistance to the pathogen influences such effects.Together, these results suggest that vector preference and development could be affected by the timing of infection and by host resistance.These effects could play a crucial role in TYLCV epidemics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Tifton, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Persistent plant viruses, by altering phenotypic and physiological traits of their hosts, could modulate the host preference and fitness of hemipteran vectors. A majority of such modulations increase vector preference for virus-infected plants and improve vector fitness, ultimately favouring virus spread. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how these virus-induced modulations on vectors vary temporally, and whether host resistance to the pathogen influences such effects. This study addressed the two questions using a Begomovirus-whitefly-tomato model pathosystem. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) -susceptible and TYLCV-resistant tomato genotypes were evaluated by whitefly-mediated transmission assays. Quantitative PCR revealed that virus accumulation decreased after an initial spike in all genotypes. TYLCV accumulation was less in resistant than in susceptible genotypes at 3, 6, and 12 weeks post inoculation (WPI). TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies over time from resistant and susceptible genotypes was also consistent with virus accumulation in the host plant. Furthermore, preference assays indicated that non-viruliferous whiteflies preferred virus-infected plants, whereas viruliferous whiteflies preferred non-infected plants. However, this effect was prominent only with the susceptible genotype at 6 WPI. The development of whiteflies on non-infected susceptible and resistant genotypes was not significantly different. However, developmental time was reduced when a susceptible genotype was infected with TYLCV. Together, these results suggest that vector preference and development could be affected by the timing of infection and by host resistance. These effects could play a crucial role in TYLCV epidemics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus