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The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents.

Platt B, Murphy SE, Lau JY - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression.There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect.We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich , Munich , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13-17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental and control cognitive bias modification of attention (CBM-A) training tasks.
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fig-2: Experimental and control cognitive bias modification of attention (CBM-A) training tasks.

Mentions: Both training tasks involved identifying a distinguishing feature in a 4 × 4 grid, over six practice trials and a single block of 112 experimental trials (Dandeneau et al., 2007) (see Fig. 2). In both conditions, trials began with a fixation cross (‘+’) which appeared in the center of the screen for 1,000 ms. This was followed by the 4 × 4 grid (10,000 ms). Participants were asked to identify the target stimuli using the left button of the mouse. For the experimental training task, the target stimulus was a positive (smiling) face, while the distracting stimuli were negative (frowning) faces. For the control training task, the target stimulus was a five-petalled flower while the distracting stimuli were seven-petalled flowers. Practice trials provided participants with ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’ feedback.


The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents.

Platt B, Murphy SE, Lau JY - PeerJ (2015)

Experimental and control cognitive bias modification of attention (CBM-A) training tasks.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631462&req=5

fig-2: Experimental and control cognitive bias modification of attention (CBM-A) training tasks.
Mentions: Both training tasks involved identifying a distinguishing feature in a 4 × 4 grid, over six practice trials and a single block of 112 experimental trials (Dandeneau et al., 2007) (see Fig. 2). In both conditions, trials began with a fixation cross (‘+’) which appeared in the center of the screen for 1,000 ms. This was followed by the 4 × 4 grid (10,000 ms). Participants were asked to identify the target stimuli using the left button of the mouse. For the experimental training task, the target stimulus was a positive (smiling) face, while the distracting stimuli were negative (frowning) faces. For the control training task, the target stimulus was a five-petalled flower while the distracting stimuli were seven-petalled flowers. Practice trials provided participants with ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’ feedback.

Bottom Line: Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression.There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect.We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich , Munich , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13-17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus