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Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Chowdhary K, Kaushik N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml.Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract.The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TERI University, 10th Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


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Types of endophyte-host pathogen interactions observed in dual culture/confrontation assay.
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pone.0141444.g004: Types of endophyte-host pathogen interactions observed in dual culture/confrontation assay.

Mentions: Vital observations were made to gain insight into the biocontrol potential of endophytic fungi outside its plant source on an artificial media in vitro against four widespread phytopathogens in India namely Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. After doing necessary macroscopic evaluation of the interaction, we followed literature sources available on endophyte-pathogen interaction types and categorised dual culture bioassay results accordingly [43], [39]. Mostly results obtained were similar within the replication plates between all endophytic fungi against all four pathogenic fungi, but in certain cases of conflict, we accepted the observations as appeared in at least 2 out of 3 replication plates. Based on our results we categorized mode of interactions into nine (I-IX) types. The key purpose of the dual culture bioassay was based on bioprospecting strategy to select potential endophytes with having antiphytopathogenic activity. The means of achieving the objective was to carry out qualitative screening of plethora of fungal endophytes recovered from different medicinal plant hosts in distinct sampling times on the basis of their ability to exhibit antagonism against broad spectrum phytopathogens. The selected fungal endophytes were marked and maintained for further evaluation (Table 6, Fig 4). Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent, as they showed antifungal activity against at least three of the broad spectrum plant pathogens (S2 Table).


Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Chowdhary K, Kaushik N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Types of endophyte-host pathogen interactions observed in dual culture/confrontation assay.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631451&req=5

pone.0141444.g004: Types of endophyte-host pathogen interactions observed in dual culture/confrontation assay.
Mentions: Vital observations were made to gain insight into the biocontrol potential of endophytic fungi outside its plant source on an artificial media in vitro against four widespread phytopathogens in India namely Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. After doing necessary macroscopic evaluation of the interaction, we followed literature sources available on endophyte-pathogen interaction types and categorised dual culture bioassay results accordingly [43], [39]. Mostly results obtained were similar within the replication plates between all endophytic fungi against all four pathogenic fungi, but in certain cases of conflict, we accepted the observations as appeared in at least 2 out of 3 replication plates. Based on our results we categorized mode of interactions into nine (I-IX) types. The key purpose of the dual culture bioassay was based on bioprospecting strategy to select potential endophytes with having antiphytopathogenic activity. The means of achieving the objective was to carry out qualitative screening of plethora of fungal endophytes recovered from different medicinal plant hosts in distinct sampling times on the basis of their ability to exhibit antagonism against broad spectrum phytopathogens. The selected fungal endophytes were marked and maintained for further evaluation (Table 6, Fig 4). Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent, as they showed antifungal activity against at least three of the broad spectrum plant pathogens (S2 Table).

Bottom Line: Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml.Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract.The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TERI University, 10th Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus