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Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Chowdhary K, Kaushik N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml.Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract.The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TERI University, 10th Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Principal component analysis (PCA) of fungal endophytes isolated from different tissues in distinct sampling time from O.sanctum performed using Unsrcambler X (version 10, CAMO, USA).
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pone.0141444.g002: Principal component analysis (PCA) of fungal endophytes isolated from different tissues in distinct sampling time from O.sanctum performed using Unsrcambler X (version 10, CAMO, USA).

Mentions: Since medicinal value of O.sanctum resides largely inside leaf tissues, we incubated more leaf tissues for endophytic fungal isolation. A total of 313 plant tissue segments (222 leaf and 91 stem tissues) of O.sanctum collected from all geographical locations in both sampling times for isolation of endophytic fungi were incubated (Table 3). We characteristically observed both spatial and temporal variations in endophytic mycobiota.). In leaf, highest isolation rate of fungal endophytes in O. sanctum (40%) was observed in samples collected from Hyderabad during first sampling time and from Delhi in second collection in 2011. While, in stem tissues Mukteshwar samples collected during first sampling had highest isolation rate (71.4%) followed by isolation rate (50%) from Hyderabad during first collection. O. sanctum collected in second sampling from Mukteshwar recorded lowest isolation rate of fungal endophytes both for leaf (10.7%) and stem (10%) tissues (Table 3). Bi-plot and correlation loading plot generated by principal component analysis showed that fungal endophytes such as Alternaria tenuissima, A.alternaria, Macrophomina phaseolina and Penicillium sp. were more abundant in leaf tissues. While Fusarium verticillioides, Bipolaris maydis, Chaetomium coarctatum, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima were exclusively recovered from second sampling in 2011 suggesting strong seasonal implications on endophytic communities (Fig 2). In addition, when species richness recovered from both plant parts from each site in different sampling time were considered alongwith temperature at the time of sampling for cluster analysis, the resulting Dendrogram revealed concurrence between species richness and mean temperature of the geographical location at the time of plant sampling (Fig 3).


Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Chowdhary K, Kaushik N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Principal component analysis (PCA) of fungal endophytes isolated from different tissues in distinct sampling time from O.sanctum performed using Unsrcambler X (version 10, CAMO, USA).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631451&req=5

pone.0141444.g002: Principal component analysis (PCA) of fungal endophytes isolated from different tissues in distinct sampling time from O.sanctum performed using Unsrcambler X (version 10, CAMO, USA).
Mentions: Since medicinal value of O.sanctum resides largely inside leaf tissues, we incubated more leaf tissues for endophytic fungal isolation. A total of 313 plant tissue segments (222 leaf and 91 stem tissues) of O.sanctum collected from all geographical locations in both sampling times for isolation of endophytic fungi were incubated (Table 3). We characteristically observed both spatial and temporal variations in endophytic mycobiota.). In leaf, highest isolation rate of fungal endophytes in O. sanctum (40%) was observed in samples collected from Hyderabad during first sampling time and from Delhi in second collection in 2011. While, in stem tissues Mukteshwar samples collected during first sampling had highest isolation rate (71.4%) followed by isolation rate (50%) from Hyderabad during first collection. O. sanctum collected in second sampling from Mukteshwar recorded lowest isolation rate of fungal endophytes both for leaf (10.7%) and stem (10%) tissues (Table 3). Bi-plot and correlation loading plot generated by principal component analysis showed that fungal endophytes such as Alternaria tenuissima, A.alternaria, Macrophomina phaseolina and Penicillium sp. were more abundant in leaf tissues. While Fusarium verticillioides, Bipolaris maydis, Chaetomium coarctatum, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima were exclusively recovered from second sampling in 2011 suggesting strong seasonal implications on endophytic communities (Fig 2). In addition, when species richness recovered from both plant parts from each site in different sampling time were considered alongwith temperature at the time of sampling for cluster analysis, the resulting Dendrogram revealed concurrence between species richness and mean temperature of the geographical location at the time of plant sampling (Fig 3).

Bottom Line: Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml.Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract.The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TERI University, 10th Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

No MeSH data available.