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Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

Lindholm AK, Sandkam B, Pohl K, Breden F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked.P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs.We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Box and whisker plot of standard length of standard and red males, indicating median value, upper and lower quartiles and minimum and maximum values.
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pone.0142089.g002: Box and whisker plot of standard length of standard and red males, indicating median value, upper and lower quartiles and minimum and maximum values.

Mentions: Natural populations of Poecilia picta were observed on collecting trips to Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad, from 1983 through 2011. All P. picta males had black spots on their bodies and dorsal and tail fins ornamented with black and orange or yellow (Fig 1). The Venezuelan populations that were observed are either sympatric with the Cumana guppy in Cumana, or sympatric with standard guppies (e.g., Cano Pedernales and Tucupita in the Orinoco Delta, or Pozo Azufre, Estado Sucre) [30, 31]. The other populations that are sympatric with P. reticulata and that we observed to contain the red color morph are from Guyana (Georgetown, Demerara River, and New Amsterdam) and Suriname (Corentyne River population). Extent of red coloration varied, as 68.8% of males classified as red showed red color from the base of the tail to the snout (excluding black spots), as in Fig 1. The remainder were classified as partially red, showing red color on approximately half to one-third of the body; we combined all males showing any red coloration on the body when we report frequency of the red male morph in Table 1. Red males were larger in standard length than standard males (mean red males 18.6 ± 0.01 SE, n = 69, mean standard males 18.05 ± SE 0.01, n = 156, two sample t test, t = 3.43, df = 223, p = 0.0007, Fig 2;S1 Table). A few individuals from Guyana, 2 from the West Demerara, and 3 from West Berbice, showed full gold coloration instead of red.


Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

Lindholm AK, Sandkam B, Pohl K, Breden F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Box and whisker plot of standard length of standard and red males, indicating median value, upper and lower quartiles and minimum and maximum values.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631359&req=5

pone.0142089.g002: Box and whisker plot of standard length of standard and red males, indicating median value, upper and lower quartiles and minimum and maximum values.
Mentions: Natural populations of Poecilia picta were observed on collecting trips to Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad, from 1983 through 2011. All P. picta males had black spots on their bodies and dorsal and tail fins ornamented with black and orange or yellow (Fig 1). The Venezuelan populations that were observed are either sympatric with the Cumana guppy in Cumana, or sympatric with standard guppies (e.g., Cano Pedernales and Tucupita in the Orinoco Delta, or Pozo Azufre, Estado Sucre) [30, 31]. The other populations that are sympatric with P. reticulata and that we observed to contain the red color morph are from Guyana (Georgetown, Demerara River, and New Amsterdam) and Suriname (Corentyne River population). Extent of red coloration varied, as 68.8% of males classified as red showed red color from the base of the tail to the snout (excluding black spots), as in Fig 1. The remainder were classified as partially red, showing red color on approximately half to one-third of the body; we combined all males showing any red coloration on the body when we report frequency of the red male morph in Table 1. Red males were larger in standard length than standard males (mean red males 18.6 ± 0.01 SE, n = 69, mean standard males 18.05 ± SE 0.01, n = 156, two sample t test, t = 3.43, df = 223, p = 0.0007, Fig 2;S1 Table). A few individuals from Guyana, 2 from the West Demerara, and 3 from West Berbice, showed full gold coloration instead of red.

Bottom Line: Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked.P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs.We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus