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Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

Lindholm AK, Sandkam B, Pohl K, Breden F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked.P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs.We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Standard (top), fully red (mid) and partially red (bottom) morph of P. picta from Georgetown, Guyana.
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pone.0142089.g001: Standard (top), fully red (mid) and partially red (bottom) morph of P. picta from Georgetown, Guyana.

Mentions: Here we report for the first time a striking red and a gold color sex-specific polymorphism in male P. picta from the mainland of South America that has persisted across a series of field surveys spanning 11 years. Previous studies of P. picta from the island of Trinidad suggest the absence of this color polymorphism in that island population. This red coloration can extend over most of the body of the male (Fig 1). In order to compare this to P. reticulata and P. parae male coloration, we investigate the inheritance pattern of the red morph through inbred lines maintained in the laboratory. Since natural selection via predation against red/orange morphs is countered by sexual selection via female mate choice in both of the close relatives, P. reticulata and P. parae, we used dichotomous choice tests to look for a female preference for the red color morph in P. picta.


Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

Lindholm AK, Sandkam B, Pohl K, Breden F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Standard (top), fully red (mid) and partially red (bottom) morph of P. picta from Georgetown, Guyana.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631359&req=5

pone.0142089.g001: Standard (top), fully red (mid) and partially red (bottom) morph of P. picta from Georgetown, Guyana.
Mentions: Here we report for the first time a striking red and a gold color sex-specific polymorphism in male P. picta from the mainland of South America that has persisted across a series of field surveys spanning 11 years. Previous studies of P. picta from the island of Trinidad suggest the absence of this color polymorphism in that island population. This red coloration can extend over most of the body of the male (Fig 1). In order to compare this to P. reticulata and P. parae male coloration, we investigate the inheritance pattern of the red morph through inbred lines maintained in the laboratory. Since natural selection via predation against red/orange morphs is countered by sexual selection via female mate choice in both of the close relatives, P. reticulata and P. parae, we used dichotomous choice tests to look for a female preference for the red color morph in P. picta.

Bottom Line: Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked.P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs.We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus