Bat and pig IFN-induced transmembrane protein 3 restrict cell entry by influenza virus and lyssaviruses.
Bottom Line: Ectopically expressed pig and microbat IFITM3 co-localized with transferrin (early endosomes) and CD63 (late endosomes/multivesicular bodies).Pig and microbat IFITM3 restricted cell entry mediated by multiple influenza haemagglutinin subtypes and lyssavirus glycoproteins.In summary, we showed that IFITMs function as potent broad-spectrum antiviral effectors in two mammals - pigs and bats - identified as major reservoirs for emerging viruses.
Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Pathogen Biology, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Finally, we addressed the contribution of IFITM3 to antiviral responses in pig and microbat cells. Endogenous IFITM3 expression was measured using TaqMan quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) designed to specifically detect IFITM3 mRNA and not other IFITM paralogues identified in these cells by RACE. Baseline levels of IFITM3 mRNA were readily detected in both the porcine NPTr cells [threshold cycle (Ct) value of IFITM3 = 22.7; Ct value of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) = 21.33] and in microbat lung fibroblasts (Ct value of IFITM3 = 25.8; Ct value of GAPDH = 22.8). IFITM3 induction was assessed in response to the dsRNA analogue poly(I : C), a molecular pattern associated with viral infection, which is recognized by Toll-like receptor 3 and induces type I IFN in porcine (Provost et al., 2012) and bat (Biesold et al., 2011; Omatsu et al., 2008; Zhou et al., 2011) cells. Poly(I : C) addition led to a 3.5-fold increase in pig IFITM3 and a twofold increase in microbat IFITM3 mRNA levels (Fig. 7). The microbat cells were also stimulated via poly(I : C) transfection; as in pteropid bat lung cells (but not primary cells from other tissues) this enhanced IFN-β induction relative to extracellular delivery of poly(I : C) (Zhou et al., 2011). However, transfection of poly(I : C) into microbat cells resulted in a similar degree of IFITM3 induction (2.3-fold) (Fig. 7).
Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Pathogen Biology, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK firstname.lastname@example.org.