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Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity.

Gaunt E, Harvala H, Österback R, Sreenu VB, Thomson E, Waris M, Simmonds P - J. Gen. Virol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16).From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash.These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK.

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Inferred timescale for the recent evolution of CVA6. Temporal reconstruction of recombination events in CVA6 using a time-correlated MCMC phylogeny reconstruction of VP1 sequences using the prototype sequence, GenBank accession number AY421764, as an outgroup (not shown). Recombination groups in each lineage are indicated by branch colours. The tree is plotted on a linear timescale, with nodes labelled with inferred dates of lineage splits (in years before present). Grey bars show 95 % highest posterior density intervals for node date estimates.
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f4: Inferred timescale for the recent evolution of CVA6. Temporal reconstruction of recombination events in CVA6 using a time-correlated MCMC phylogeny reconstruction of VP1 sequences using the prototype sequence, GenBank accession number AY421764, as an outgroup (not shown). Recombination groups in each lineage are indicated by branch colours. The tree is plotted on a linear timescale, with nodes labelled with inferred dates of lineage splits (in years before present). Grey bars show 95 % highest posterior density intervals for node date estimates.

Mentions: To investigate when recombination groups of CVA6 first appeared, sequences from the VP1 region were analysed by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis using sample dates to reconstruct a temporal phylogeny (Fig. 4). The substitution rate of CVA6 VP1 sequences was estimated at 4.2×10−3 substitutions site−1 year−1 (2.8–5.8×10−3 highest posterior density interval), comparable with that of EV71 and other species A serotypes in previous analyses (Lukashev et al., 2014; McWilliam Leitch et al., 2009). Substitution rates were relatively uniformly distributed amongst different lineages in the VP1 tree (Fig. S2).


Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity.

Gaunt E, Harvala H, Österback R, Sreenu VB, Thomson E, Waris M, Simmonds P - J. Gen. Virol. (2015)

Inferred timescale for the recent evolution of CVA6. Temporal reconstruction of recombination events in CVA6 using a time-correlated MCMC phylogeny reconstruction of VP1 sequences using the prototype sequence, GenBank accession number AY421764, as an outgroup (not shown). Recombination groups in each lineage are indicated by branch colours. The tree is plotted on a linear timescale, with nodes labelled with inferred dates of lineage splits (in years before present). Grey bars show 95 % highest posterior density intervals for node date estimates.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4631059&req=5

f4: Inferred timescale for the recent evolution of CVA6. Temporal reconstruction of recombination events in CVA6 using a time-correlated MCMC phylogeny reconstruction of VP1 sequences using the prototype sequence, GenBank accession number AY421764, as an outgroup (not shown). Recombination groups in each lineage are indicated by branch colours. The tree is plotted on a linear timescale, with nodes labelled with inferred dates of lineage splits (in years before present). Grey bars show 95 % highest posterior density intervals for node date estimates.
Mentions: To investigate when recombination groups of CVA6 first appeared, sequences from the VP1 region were analysed by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis using sample dates to reconstruct a temporal phylogeny (Fig. 4). The substitution rate of CVA6 VP1 sequences was estimated at 4.2×10−3 substitutions site−1 year−1 (2.8–5.8×10−3 highest posterior density interval), comparable with that of EV71 and other species A serotypes in previous analyses (Lukashev et al., 2014; McWilliam Leitch et al., 2009). Substitution rates were relatively uniformly distributed amongst different lineages in the VP1 tree (Fig. S2).

Bottom Line: Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16).From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash.These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus