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Detailed Anatomical and Electrophysiological Models of Human Atria and Torso for the Simulation of Atrial Activation.

Ferrer A, Sebastián R, Sánchez-Quintana D, Rodríguez JF, Godoy EJ, Martínez L, Saiz J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In recent years both P-waves and the BSPM have been used to identify the mechanisms underlying AF, such as localizing ectopic foci or high-frequency rotors.However, the relationship between the activation of the different areas of the atria and the characteristics of the BSPM and P-wave signals are still far from being completely understood.Using this multi scale model, it was revealed that the best places for recording P-waves are the frontal upper right and the frontal and rear left quadrants of the torso.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería (Ci2B), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Atrial arrhythmias, and specifically atrial fibrillation (AF), induce rapid and irregular activation patterns that appear on the torso surface as abnormal P-waves in electrocardiograms and body surface potential maps (BSPM). In recent years both P-waves and the BSPM have been used to identify the mechanisms underlying AF, such as localizing ectopic foci or high-frequency rotors. However, the relationship between the activation of the different areas of the atria and the characteristics of the BSPM and P-wave signals are still far from being completely understood. In this work we developed a multi-scale framework, which combines a highly-detailed 3D atrial model and a torso model to study the relationship between atrial activation and surface signals in sinus rhythm. Using this multi scale model, it was revealed that the best places for recording P-waves are the frontal upper right and the frontal and rear left quadrants of the torso. Our results also suggest that only nine regions (of the twenty-one structures in which the atrial surface was divided) make a significant contribution to the BSPM and determine the main P-wave characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial information from the potential root means square (B-RMS).a) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the frontal torso view; b) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the rear torso view. Geometric forms in each quadrant represent the torso area where the displayed P-waves are registered (units: mV vs ms).
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pone.0141573.g008: Spatial information from the potential root means square (B-RMS).a) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the frontal torso view; b) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the rear torso view. Geometric forms in each quadrant represent the torso area where the displayed P-waves are registered (units: mV vs ms).

Mentions: We performed a deeper signal analysis computing the Root Means Square (RMS) on the whole BSPM (from now on B-RMS) to obtain additional information on the P-wave signal magnitude and its morphology (Fig 8). The signals registered within the dotted square at the central position (high B-RMS values around 0.031 mVrms) correspond to the region of maximum potentials and have very similar biphasic morphology (0.35 mVpp). The main characteristic of all the P-waves within this square lies in their biphasic morphologies with a turning point from positive to negative potentials at t = 70 ms. This morphology is due to the rotation of the electrical dipole shown in Fig 7. P-waves in the upper right quadrant (dotted circle) also have the highest values of B-RMS, but show monophasic patterns with high negative amplitude (0.22 mVpp). A negative to positive change in the signal slope is observed in all the signals registered within this circle at t = 70 ms, also produced by the rotation of the electrical dipole. P-waves from the upper left quadrant (dotted diamond) and the lower right panel (dotted star) present low values of B-RMS (0.002 mVrms) and a very noisy monophasic morphology with low amplitude (0.04 mVpp and 0.03 mVpp, respectively) that prevented us from inferring useful information related to atrial activation. Finally, in the lower left quadrant (dotted triangle), we registered P-waves with medium values of B-RMS, indicating once again signals with sufficient monophasic amplitude (0.10 mVpp) to be considered useful information. As in the previous cases, the double peak at t = 70 ms (M-shaped morphology) represents the rotation of the electrical dipole. Potential B-RMS distribution in the rear torso was also analysed (Fig 8b) and similar conclusions were reached. Only signals registered on the green area of the rear central (dotted square) and lower quadrants (dotted triangle and star) allowed noise-free signals to be analysed.


Detailed Anatomical and Electrophysiological Models of Human Atria and Torso for the Simulation of Atrial Activation.

Ferrer A, Sebastián R, Sánchez-Quintana D, Rodríguez JF, Godoy EJ, Martínez L, Saiz J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Spatial information from the potential root means square (B-RMS).a) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the frontal torso view; b) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the rear torso view. Geometric forms in each quadrant represent the torso area where the displayed P-waves are registered (units: mV vs ms).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4629897&req=5

pone.0141573.g008: Spatial information from the potential root means square (B-RMS).a) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the frontal torso view; b) B-RMS (mVRMS) at the rear torso view. Geometric forms in each quadrant represent the torso area where the displayed P-waves are registered (units: mV vs ms).
Mentions: We performed a deeper signal analysis computing the Root Means Square (RMS) on the whole BSPM (from now on B-RMS) to obtain additional information on the P-wave signal magnitude and its morphology (Fig 8). The signals registered within the dotted square at the central position (high B-RMS values around 0.031 mVrms) correspond to the region of maximum potentials and have very similar biphasic morphology (0.35 mVpp). The main characteristic of all the P-waves within this square lies in their biphasic morphologies with a turning point from positive to negative potentials at t = 70 ms. This morphology is due to the rotation of the electrical dipole shown in Fig 7. P-waves in the upper right quadrant (dotted circle) also have the highest values of B-RMS, but show monophasic patterns with high negative amplitude (0.22 mVpp). A negative to positive change in the signal slope is observed in all the signals registered within this circle at t = 70 ms, also produced by the rotation of the electrical dipole. P-waves from the upper left quadrant (dotted diamond) and the lower right panel (dotted star) present low values of B-RMS (0.002 mVrms) and a very noisy monophasic morphology with low amplitude (0.04 mVpp and 0.03 mVpp, respectively) that prevented us from inferring useful information related to atrial activation. Finally, in the lower left quadrant (dotted triangle), we registered P-waves with medium values of B-RMS, indicating once again signals with sufficient monophasic amplitude (0.10 mVpp) to be considered useful information. As in the previous cases, the double peak at t = 70 ms (M-shaped morphology) represents the rotation of the electrical dipole. Potential B-RMS distribution in the rear torso was also analysed (Fig 8b) and similar conclusions were reached. Only signals registered on the green area of the rear central (dotted square) and lower quadrants (dotted triangle and star) allowed noise-free signals to be analysed.

Bottom Line: In recent years both P-waves and the BSPM have been used to identify the mechanisms underlying AF, such as localizing ectopic foci or high-frequency rotors.However, the relationship between the activation of the different areas of the atria and the characteristics of the BSPM and P-wave signals are still far from being completely understood.Using this multi scale model, it was revealed that the best places for recording P-waves are the frontal upper right and the frontal and rear left quadrants of the torso.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería (Ci2B), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Atrial arrhythmias, and specifically atrial fibrillation (AF), induce rapid and irregular activation patterns that appear on the torso surface as abnormal P-waves in electrocardiograms and body surface potential maps (BSPM). In recent years both P-waves and the BSPM have been used to identify the mechanisms underlying AF, such as localizing ectopic foci or high-frequency rotors. However, the relationship between the activation of the different areas of the atria and the characteristics of the BSPM and P-wave signals are still far from being completely understood. In this work we developed a multi-scale framework, which combines a highly-detailed 3D atrial model and a torso model to study the relationship between atrial activation and surface signals in sinus rhythm. Using this multi scale model, it was revealed that the best places for recording P-waves are the frontal upper right and the frontal and rear left quadrants of the torso. Our results also suggest that only nine regions (of the twenty-one structures in which the atrial surface was divided) make a significant contribution to the BSPM and determine the main P-wave characteristics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus