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Diversity and adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces wine yeast: a review.

Marsit S, Dequin S - FEMS Yeast Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result, wine yeasts have recently attracted considerable interest for studying the evolutionary effects of domestication.The widespread use of whole-genome sequencing during the last decade has provided new insights into the biodiversity, population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary history of wine yeasts.This review will summarize the current knowledge on the diversity and evolutionary history of wine yeasts, focusing on the domestication fingerprints identified in these strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1083, SPO, F-34060 Montpellier, France Montpellier SupAgro, UMR1083, SPO, F-34060 Montpellier, France Montpellier University, UMR1083, SPO, F-34060 Montpellier, France.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Main phases of wine fermentation. Evolution of the main fermentation parameters during wine fermentation on a synthetic medium containing 200 g L−1 glucose/fructose and 330 mg L−1 assimilable nitrogen, with the commercial wine strain EC1118 at 24°C. Dark blue: fermentation rate; light blue: ethanol; red: cell number; green: nitrogen; and purple: sugars.
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fig1: Main phases of wine fermentation. Evolution of the main fermentation parameters during wine fermentation on a synthetic medium containing 200 g L−1 glucose/fructose and 330 mg L−1 assimilable nitrogen, with the commercial wine strain EC1118 at 24°C. Dark blue: fermentation rate; light blue: ethanol; red: cell number; green: nitrogen; and purple: sugars.

Mentions: Wine fermentation is a fluctuating environment that exposes yeast to a variety of stresses, including high osmolarity, reflecting increased sugar concentrations, high sulfite levels, anaerobiosis, acid stress, nutrient (nitrogen, lipids and vitamins) depletion and ethanol toxicity. A typical wine fermentation (Fig. 1) comprises a lag phase, which lasts for several hours, a short growth phase of 24–36 h, followed by a stationary phase, during which most of the sugar (between 50 and 80%) is fermented. During this phase, yeast activity continually decreases, although the viability levels remain high, generally over 90%, until the sugar is exhausted. The most desirable traits of wine yeasts include the rapid and complete degradation of sugars into ethanol and CO2 to provide metabolites and aroma compounds that positively impact the sensory balance of wine, without producing undesirable compounds (Pretorius 2000; Dequin 2001). Numerous fermentative by-products (glycerol, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, higher alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, sulfur compounds, etc.) are derived from the degradation of sugars, amino acids and fatty acids, and yeasts can also transform grape precursors to release varietal aromas (monoterpenes and thiols) (Swiegers et al.2005).


Diversity and adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces wine yeast: a review.

Marsit S, Dequin S - FEMS Yeast Res. (2015)

Main phases of wine fermentation. Evolution of the main fermentation parameters during wine fermentation on a synthetic medium containing 200 g L−1 glucose/fructose and 330 mg L−1 assimilable nitrogen, with the commercial wine strain EC1118 at 24°C. Dark blue: fermentation rate; light blue: ethanol; red: cell number; green: nitrogen; and purple: sugars.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4629790&req=5

fig1: Main phases of wine fermentation. Evolution of the main fermentation parameters during wine fermentation on a synthetic medium containing 200 g L−1 glucose/fructose and 330 mg L−1 assimilable nitrogen, with the commercial wine strain EC1118 at 24°C. Dark blue: fermentation rate; light blue: ethanol; red: cell number; green: nitrogen; and purple: sugars.
Mentions: Wine fermentation is a fluctuating environment that exposes yeast to a variety of stresses, including high osmolarity, reflecting increased sugar concentrations, high sulfite levels, anaerobiosis, acid stress, nutrient (nitrogen, lipids and vitamins) depletion and ethanol toxicity. A typical wine fermentation (Fig. 1) comprises a lag phase, which lasts for several hours, a short growth phase of 24–36 h, followed by a stationary phase, during which most of the sugar (between 50 and 80%) is fermented. During this phase, yeast activity continually decreases, although the viability levels remain high, generally over 90%, until the sugar is exhausted. The most desirable traits of wine yeasts include the rapid and complete degradation of sugars into ethanol and CO2 to provide metabolites and aroma compounds that positively impact the sensory balance of wine, without producing undesirable compounds (Pretorius 2000; Dequin 2001). Numerous fermentative by-products (glycerol, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, higher alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, sulfur compounds, etc.) are derived from the degradation of sugars, amino acids and fatty acids, and yeasts can also transform grape precursors to release varietal aromas (monoterpenes and thiols) (Swiegers et al.2005).

Bottom Line: As a result, wine yeasts have recently attracted considerable interest for studying the evolutionary effects of domestication.The widespread use of whole-genome sequencing during the last decade has provided new insights into the biodiversity, population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary history of wine yeasts.This review will summarize the current knowledge on the diversity and evolutionary history of wine yeasts, focusing on the domestication fingerprints identified in these strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1083, SPO, F-34060 Montpellier, France Montpellier SupAgro, UMR1083, SPO, F-34060 Montpellier, France Montpellier University, UMR1083, SPO, F-34060 Montpellier, France.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus