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Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance.

Berthod N, Brereton NJ, Pitre FE, Labrecque M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars.However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress.Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, University of Montréal, Montreal QC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) 40 μm transverse section of a stem from SX64 cultivated at Saint-Roch de l′Achigan (left – most dense) and at LP (right – least dense). Stained in 1% Chlorazol Black E in methoxyethanol and 1% aqueous Safranin O. (B) Polarization of G fibers determined by Method C (Blind distribution) from SX64 cultivar (S. miyabeana) in its third year of a harvest cycle sampled at two field trials: Saint-Roch-de-l′Achigan and LP. Error bars represent standard error (n = 3 trees, one per randomized block). t-test pairwise post hoc test (α = 0.05) are represented by letters a–b.
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Figure 6: (A) 40 μm transverse section of a stem from SX64 cultivated at Saint-Roch de l′Achigan (left – most dense) and at LP (right – least dense). Stained in 1% Chlorazol Black E in methoxyethanol and 1% aqueous Safranin O. (B) Polarization of G fibers determined by Method C (Blind distribution) from SX64 cultivar (S. miyabeana) in its third year of a harvest cycle sampled at two field trials: Saint-Roch-de-l′Achigan and LP. Error bars represent standard error (n = 3 trees, one per randomized block). t-test pairwise post hoc test (α = 0.05) are represented by letters a–b.

Mentions: We determined gelatinous fiber (g-fiber) abundance (a characteristic of TW) through specific staining of the gelatinous-layer (g-layer) and image analysis of the biologically replicated samples (n = 3). As this type of site comparison of proportional (net stem) g-fiber quantification is relatively novel for mature field-grown trees (to our knowledge, most having been pot studies to date), four different methods were assessed to ensure confidence in quantification. Based on the results of these four methods, wood grown in SR had significantly and substantially more g-fibers than LP (Figure 5B). Based on method A, SR had twice as many observed g-fibers, with 50% of the tissue being g-fiber containing compared to 25% at LP. Using method C, transverse polarization (i.e., Tissue patterning) of the g-fibers were determined by dividing the wood stem section into two parts (Figure 6A). Significant and substantial variation in tissue patterning was observed between sites, with TW always being produced somewhere across the stem at SR but with no clear polarization (no clear “upper” or “lower” side of the stem from a transverse perspective) (Figure 6B). At the LP site (which uniformly produced less dense wood as well as substantially less TW), clear polarization was observed with no TW produced during some points of the growing season, no significant TW polarization was observed in the high density wood from the SR site.


Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance.

Berthod N, Brereton NJ, Pitre FE, Labrecque M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

(A) 40 μm transverse section of a stem from SX64 cultivated at Saint-Roch de l′Achigan (left – most dense) and at LP (right – least dense). Stained in 1% Chlorazol Black E in methoxyethanol and 1% aqueous Safranin O. (B) Polarization of G fibers determined by Method C (Blind distribution) from SX64 cultivar (S. miyabeana) in its third year of a harvest cycle sampled at two field trials: Saint-Roch-de-l′Achigan and LP. Error bars represent standard error (n = 3 trees, one per randomized block). t-test pairwise post hoc test (α = 0.05) are represented by letters a–b.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4628129&req=5

Figure 6: (A) 40 μm transverse section of a stem from SX64 cultivated at Saint-Roch de l′Achigan (left – most dense) and at LP (right – least dense). Stained in 1% Chlorazol Black E in methoxyethanol and 1% aqueous Safranin O. (B) Polarization of G fibers determined by Method C (Blind distribution) from SX64 cultivar (S. miyabeana) in its third year of a harvest cycle sampled at two field trials: Saint-Roch-de-l′Achigan and LP. Error bars represent standard error (n = 3 trees, one per randomized block). t-test pairwise post hoc test (α = 0.05) are represented by letters a–b.
Mentions: We determined gelatinous fiber (g-fiber) abundance (a characteristic of TW) through specific staining of the gelatinous-layer (g-layer) and image analysis of the biologically replicated samples (n = 3). As this type of site comparison of proportional (net stem) g-fiber quantification is relatively novel for mature field-grown trees (to our knowledge, most having been pot studies to date), four different methods were assessed to ensure confidence in quantification. Based on the results of these four methods, wood grown in SR had significantly and substantially more g-fibers than LP (Figure 5B). Based on method A, SR had twice as many observed g-fibers, with 50% of the tissue being g-fiber containing compared to 25% at LP. Using method C, transverse polarization (i.e., Tissue patterning) of the g-fibers were determined by dividing the wood stem section into two parts (Figure 6A). Significant and substantial variation in tissue patterning was observed between sites, with TW always being produced somewhere across the stem at SR but with no clear polarization (no clear “upper” or “lower” side of the stem from a transverse perspective) (Figure 6B). At the LP site (which uniformly produced less dense wood as well as substantially less TW), clear polarization was observed with no TW produced during some points of the growing season, no significant TW polarization was observed in the high density wood from the SR site.

Bottom Line: While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars.However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress.Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, University of Montréal, Montreal QC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus