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In vitro derivation of mammalian germ cells from stem cells and their potential therapeutic application.

Saito S, Lin YC, Murayama Y, Nakamura Y, Eckner R, Niemann H, Yokoyama KK - Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a unique type of cells because they exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency.Spermatogenesis is an intricate biological process that starts from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and leads to differentiated haploid spermatozoa.Currently, there are two main approaches for the derivation of functional germ cells from PSCs, either the induction of in vitro differentiation to produce haploid cell products, or combination of in vitro differentiation and in vivo transplantation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Saito Laboratory of Cell Technology, Yaita, Tochigi, 329-1571, Japan. saict@maple.ocn.ne.jp.

ABSTRACT
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a unique type of cells because they exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency. PSCs may be induced to differentiate into any cell type, even male and female germ cells, suggesting their potential as novel cell-based therapeutic treatment for infertility problems. Spermatogenesis is an intricate biological process that starts from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and leads to differentiated haploid spermatozoa. Errors at any stage in spermatogenesis may result in male infertility. During the past decade, much progress has been made in the derivation of male germ cells from various types of progenitor stem cells. Currently, there are two main approaches for the derivation of functional germ cells from PSCs, either the induction of in vitro differentiation to produce haploid cell products, or combination of in vitro differentiation and in vivo transplantation. The production of mature and fertile spermatozoa from stem cells might provide an unlimited source of autologous gametes for treatment of male infertility. Here, we discuss the current state of the art regarding the differentiation potential of SSCs, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells to produce functional male germ cells. We also discuss the possible use of livestock-derived PSCs as a novel option for animal reproduction and infertility treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of differentiation of mammalian PSCs into germ cells in vitro. The totipotent zygote is the earliest cell. The ICM in blastocysts contains all cell types forming the entire organism, and ESCs have been established from ICM cells under suitable in vitro culture conditions. Following germ line specification, PGCs appear first in the extraembryonic mesoderm. The germ line potential is preserved during embryo development in OCT4+ cells located in ICM cells of the blastocyst, epiblast stem cells, PGCs, and gonocytes in male gonads. Both ESCs and iPSCs can be differentiated to PGC-like cells under in vitro culture conditions with BMP4 and/or GDNF. The development of germ cells, already during the postnatal period, is sex-specific. Male germ cells enter mitotic arrest and are reactivated to initiate spermatogenesis after birth. Female germ cells enter meiosis and undergo meiotic arrest until after birth [80, 83]. eBlastocyst equine blastocyst, mESCs mouse embryonic stem cells, mEpiblast mouse epiblast, hiPSCs human induced pluripotent stem cells
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Fig1: Schematic representation of differentiation of mammalian PSCs into germ cells in vitro. The totipotent zygote is the earliest cell. The ICM in blastocysts contains all cell types forming the entire organism, and ESCs have been established from ICM cells under suitable in vitro culture conditions. Following germ line specification, PGCs appear first in the extraembryonic mesoderm. The germ line potential is preserved during embryo development in OCT4+ cells located in ICM cells of the blastocyst, epiblast stem cells, PGCs, and gonocytes in male gonads. Both ESCs and iPSCs can be differentiated to PGC-like cells under in vitro culture conditions with BMP4 and/or GDNF. The development of germ cells, already during the postnatal period, is sex-specific. Male germ cells enter mitotic arrest and are reactivated to initiate spermatogenesis after birth. Female germ cells enter meiosis and undergo meiotic arrest until after birth [80, 83]. eBlastocyst equine blastocyst, mESCs mouse embryonic stem cells, mEpiblast mouse epiblast, hiPSCs human induced pluripotent stem cells

Mentions: Stem cells are pluripotent cells that have the capacity for indefinite self-renewal and can generate multiple cell types with specific functions in the body [3]. Spermatogenesis is an intricate process that starts with self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and leads to fully differentiated functional haploid spermatozoa (Fig. 1). Perturbations at any stage of spermatogenesis may result in infertility; because the process is error prone, and defective sperm production is thought to be responsible for 15–50 % of all infertility cases [2].Fig. 1


In vitro derivation of mammalian germ cells from stem cells and their potential therapeutic application.

Saito S, Lin YC, Murayama Y, Nakamura Y, Eckner R, Niemann H, Yokoyama KK - Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2015)

Schematic representation of differentiation of mammalian PSCs into germ cells in vitro. The totipotent zygote is the earliest cell. The ICM in blastocysts contains all cell types forming the entire organism, and ESCs have been established from ICM cells under suitable in vitro culture conditions. Following germ line specification, PGCs appear first in the extraembryonic mesoderm. The germ line potential is preserved during embryo development in OCT4+ cells located in ICM cells of the blastocyst, epiblast stem cells, PGCs, and gonocytes in male gonads. Both ESCs and iPSCs can be differentiated to PGC-like cells under in vitro culture conditions with BMP4 and/or GDNF. The development of germ cells, already during the postnatal period, is sex-specific. Male germ cells enter mitotic arrest and are reactivated to initiate spermatogenesis after birth. Female germ cells enter meiosis and undergo meiotic arrest until after birth [80, 83]. eBlastocyst equine blastocyst, mESCs mouse embryonic stem cells, mEpiblast mouse epiblast, hiPSCs human induced pluripotent stem cells
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4628088&req=5

Fig1: Schematic representation of differentiation of mammalian PSCs into germ cells in vitro. The totipotent zygote is the earliest cell. The ICM in blastocysts contains all cell types forming the entire organism, and ESCs have been established from ICM cells under suitable in vitro culture conditions. Following germ line specification, PGCs appear first in the extraembryonic mesoderm. The germ line potential is preserved during embryo development in OCT4+ cells located in ICM cells of the blastocyst, epiblast stem cells, PGCs, and gonocytes in male gonads. Both ESCs and iPSCs can be differentiated to PGC-like cells under in vitro culture conditions with BMP4 and/or GDNF. The development of germ cells, already during the postnatal period, is sex-specific. Male germ cells enter mitotic arrest and are reactivated to initiate spermatogenesis after birth. Female germ cells enter meiosis and undergo meiotic arrest until after birth [80, 83]. eBlastocyst equine blastocyst, mESCs mouse embryonic stem cells, mEpiblast mouse epiblast, hiPSCs human induced pluripotent stem cells
Mentions: Stem cells are pluripotent cells that have the capacity for indefinite self-renewal and can generate multiple cell types with specific functions in the body [3]. Spermatogenesis is an intricate process that starts with self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and leads to fully differentiated functional haploid spermatozoa (Fig. 1). Perturbations at any stage of spermatogenesis may result in infertility; because the process is error prone, and defective sperm production is thought to be responsible for 15–50 % of all infertility cases [2].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a unique type of cells because they exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency.Spermatogenesis is an intricate biological process that starts from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and leads to differentiated haploid spermatozoa.Currently, there are two main approaches for the derivation of functional germ cells from PSCs, either the induction of in vitro differentiation to produce haploid cell products, or combination of in vitro differentiation and in vivo transplantation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Saito Laboratory of Cell Technology, Yaita, Tochigi, 329-1571, Japan. saict@maple.ocn.ne.jp.

ABSTRACT
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a unique type of cells because they exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency. PSCs may be induced to differentiate into any cell type, even male and female germ cells, suggesting their potential as novel cell-based therapeutic treatment for infertility problems. Spermatogenesis is an intricate biological process that starts from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and leads to differentiated haploid spermatozoa. Errors at any stage in spermatogenesis may result in male infertility. During the past decade, much progress has been made in the derivation of male germ cells from various types of progenitor stem cells. Currently, there are two main approaches for the derivation of functional germ cells from PSCs, either the induction of in vitro differentiation to produce haploid cell products, or combination of in vitro differentiation and in vivo transplantation. The production of mature and fertile spermatozoa from stem cells might provide an unlimited source of autologous gametes for treatment of male infertility. Here, we discuss the current state of the art regarding the differentiation potential of SSCs, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells to produce functional male germ cells. We also discuss the possible use of livestock-derived PSCs as a novel option for animal reproduction and infertility treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus