Limits...
Modulatory effect of protocatechuic acid on cadmium induced nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in rats in vivo.

Adefegha SA, Omojokun OS, Oboh G - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: The serum was used for the determination of the total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels while the liver homogenate was used for the estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).The result revealed that total protein level was reduced in cadmium induced toxicity rat group which was elevated upon treatment with PCA.However, significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ALT, AST and ALP activity were noticed in groups administered different doses of PCA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, 340001 Ondo State Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study sought to investigate the effect of protocatechuic acid (PCA); a phenolic compound readily available in most plant foods on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in rats.

Case description: Thirty six adult male rats weighing about 150-160 g were acclimatized for 2 weeks and subsequently divided into six groups: Group 1 rats received normal saline (control group), group 2 rats were administered 5 mg Cd/kg body weight in form of solution orally (induced group), groups 3 and 4 received cadmium solution and different doses of PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg body weight) respectively, while groups 5 and 6 were the normal rats administered different doses of PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) respectively in an experiment that lasted for twenty one days. The animals were sacrificed, the blood was collected and the serum was subsequently prepared. Furthermore, the liver was excised, homogenized and centrifuged to obtain the tissue homogenate used for the analyses. The serum was used for the determination of the total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels while the liver homogenate was used for the estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

Discussion and evaluation: The result revealed that total protein level was reduced in cadmium induced toxicity rat group which was elevated upon treatment with PCA. Conversely, the elevated levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in cadmium induced toxicity kidney rats were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in PCA treated groups. Similarly, marked elevation in the ALT, AST and ALP activity were observed in cadmium induced toxicity rat group when compared with the control group. However, significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ALT, AST and ALP activity were noticed in groups administered different doses of PCA.

Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that PCA may protect against cadmium-induced toxicity in the kidney and liver.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of protocatechuic acid on uric acid level in the serum of rats exposed to cadmium. $Group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control). **Group 3 (Cadmium + 10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 4 (Cadmium + 20 mg/kg B.W PCA) very significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity). ðGroup 5 (10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 6 (20 mg/kg B.W PCA) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4628021&req=5

Fig3: Effect of protocatechuic acid on uric acid level in the serum of rats exposed to cadmium. $Group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control). **Group 3 (Cadmium + 10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 4 (Cadmium + 20 mg/kg B.W PCA) very significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity). ðGroup 5 (10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 6 (20 mg/kg B.W PCA) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control)

Mentions: Furthermore, Fig. 2 revealed that cadmium administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased the urea level in cadmium-treated rats when compared with the normal control group. However, co-treatment of cadmium with 10 or 20 mg/kg PCA (Group 3 and 4 respectively) showed obvious significant (p > 0.05) decrease in urea level. In addition, treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg PCA (Group 5 and 6 respectively) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the urea level when compared with cadmium–treated group. Similarly, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in urea level in normal rat treated with PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) when compared with the cadmium-treated group (Fig. 2). Although, the decrease in urea level of the 20 mg/kg PCA group has slight significant (p < 0.05) difference from the normal control group, this could ascertain the 20 mg/kg as the fixed dose for further biochemical studies. Similarly, Fig. 3 revealed that cadmium administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased the uric acid level in cadmium-treated group when compared with the normal control group. However, co-treatment of cadmium with 10 or 20 mg/kg PCA showed significant (p > 0.05) decrease in uric acid level. In addition, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in uric acid level in normal rat treated with PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) when compared with the cadmium-treated group as well as with normal control group. Also, Cd administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased the creatinine level in Cd-treated negative control group when compared with the normal control group. However, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in creatinine level of rats in the groups co-treated with cadmium and PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) when compared with the cadmium-induced toxicity group (Fig. 4). Furthermore, no significant (p > 0.05) change was observed between the PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) treated and normal control groups.Fig. 2


Modulatory effect of protocatechuic acid on cadmium induced nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in rats in vivo.

Adefegha SA, Omojokun OS, Oboh G - Springerplus (2015)

Effect of protocatechuic acid on uric acid level in the serum of rats exposed to cadmium. $Group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control). **Group 3 (Cadmium + 10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 4 (Cadmium + 20 mg/kg B.W PCA) very significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity). ðGroup 5 (10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 6 (20 mg/kg B.W PCA) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4628021&req=5

Fig3: Effect of protocatechuic acid on uric acid level in the serum of rats exposed to cadmium. $Group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control). **Group 3 (Cadmium + 10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 4 (Cadmium + 20 mg/kg B.W PCA) very significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 2 (Cadmium-induced toxicity). ðGroup 5 (10 mg/kg B.W PCA) and 6 (20 mg/kg B.W PCA) significantly (p < 0.05) different from group 1 (normal control)
Mentions: Furthermore, Fig. 2 revealed that cadmium administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased the urea level in cadmium-treated rats when compared with the normal control group. However, co-treatment of cadmium with 10 or 20 mg/kg PCA (Group 3 and 4 respectively) showed obvious significant (p > 0.05) decrease in urea level. In addition, treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg PCA (Group 5 and 6 respectively) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the urea level when compared with cadmium–treated group. Similarly, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in urea level in normal rat treated with PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) when compared with the cadmium-treated group (Fig. 2). Although, the decrease in urea level of the 20 mg/kg PCA group has slight significant (p < 0.05) difference from the normal control group, this could ascertain the 20 mg/kg as the fixed dose for further biochemical studies. Similarly, Fig. 3 revealed that cadmium administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased the uric acid level in cadmium-treated group when compared with the normal control group. However, co-treatment of cadmium with 10 or 20 mg/kg PCA showed significant (p > 0.05) decrease in uric acid level. In addition, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in uric acid level in normal rat treated with PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) when compared with the cadmium-treated group as well as with normal control group. Also, Cd administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased the creatinine level in Cd-treated negative control group when compared with the normal control group. However, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in creatinine level of rats in the groups co-treated with cadmium and PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) when compared with the cadmium-induced toxicity group (Fig. 4). Furthermore, no significant (p > 0.05) change was observed between the PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) treated and normal control groups.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The serum was used for the determination of the total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels while the liver homogenate was used for the estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).The result revealed that total protein level was reduced in cadmium induced toxicity rat group which was elevated upon treatment with PCA.However, significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ALT, AST and ALP activity were noticed in groups administered different doses of PCA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, 340001 Ondo State Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study sought to investigate the effect of protocatechuic acid (PCA); a phenolic compound readily available in most plant foods on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in rats.

Case description: Thirty six adult male rats weighing about 150-160 g were acclimatized for 2 weeks and subsequently divided into six groups: Group 1 rats received normal saline (control group), group 2 rats were administered 5 mg Cd/kg body weight in form of solution orally (induced group), groups 3 and 4 received cadmium solution and different doses of PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg body weight) respectively, while groups 5 and 6 were the normal rats administered different doses of PCA (10 and 20 mg/kg) respectively in an experiment that lasted for twenty one days. The animals were sacrificed, the blood was collected and the serum was subsequently prepared. Furthermore, the liver was excised, homogenized and centrifuged to obtain the tissue homogenate used for the analyses. The serum was used for the determination of the total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels while the liver homogenate was used for the estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

Discussion and evaluation: The result revealed that total protein level was reduced in cadmium induced toxicity rat group which was elevated upon treatment with PCA. Conversely, the elevated levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in cadmium induced toxicity kidney rats were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in PCA treated groups. Similarly, marked elevation in the ALT, AST and ALP activity were observed in cadmium induced toxicity rat group when compared with the control group. However, significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ALT, AST and ALP activity were noticed in groups administered different doses of PCA.

Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that PCA may protect against cadmium-induced toxicity in the kidney and liver.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus