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Seasonal population density and winter survival strategies of endangered Kashmir gray langur (Semnopithecus ajax) in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India.

Mir ZR, Noor A, Habib B, Veeraswami GG - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: Results suggested that the density of Kashmir gray langurs varied marginally across seasons, with the highest density recorded during winter and lowest during summer season.Langurs spent most of their time in carrying out various social activities (34.32 %) and least in resting (18.41 %).We conclude that langur density is low in DNP as compared to other plain areas of the Indian subcontinent and langurs in DNP have balanced their time budget and diet so as to increase their chances of survival in the unfavorably cold and food scarce winter conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, P.O Box No.18, Dehradun, 248001 India.

ABSTRACT
The population density of Kashmir gray langurs (Semnopithecus ajax) was studied in Dachigam National Park (DNP), Kashmir using distance sampling method. A total of 13 transects (1.5-2.5 km in length) were surveyed in the intensive study area (~90 km(2)) yielding 170 encounters in different seasons of the study period (2011-2013). Some aspects of behavior and feeding were also studied during the winter months (Dec-Feb) of 2012 and 2013 inside DNP. We used instantaneous scan sampling to collect behavioral data determining the time budget and diet of langurs in winter conditions. Results suggested that the density of Kashmir gray langurs varied marginally across seasons, with the highest density recorded during winter and lowest during summer season. Langurs spent most of their time in carrying out various social activities (34.32 %) and least in resting (18.41 %). Langurs fed upon 13 plant species (belonging to 12 families) and consumed a substantial proportion of bark (37.4 %) in their diet. We conclude that langur density is low in DNP as compared to other plain areas of the Indian subcontinent and langurs in DNP have balanced their time budget and diet so as to increase their chances of survival in the unfavorably cold and food scarce winter conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Monthly mean maximum temperature (°C, dashed line), monthly mean minimum temperature (°C, solid line) and average monthly rainfall (mm, histogram) from 2011 to 2013 recorded at observatory of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, near Dachigam National Park
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Fig2: Monthly mean maximum temperature (°C, dashed line), monthly mean minimum temperature (°C, solid line) and average monthly rainfall (mm, histogram) from 2011 to 2013 recorded at observatory of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, near Dachigam National Park

Mentions: The study was conducted in Dachigam National Park (141 km2) located between 34°05′–34°12′N and 74°54′–75°09′E in the great Zanskar Range of Himalaya (Fig. 1). The park is the catchment area of the famous Dal lake and is divided into Lower Dachigam in the west and Upper Dachigam in the east. We selected lower Dachigam (~90 km2) as intensive study area as langur distribution is limited to this area of the park owing to its suitable altitudinal range. DNP is bounded by Dara block of the Sindh Forest Division in the north; by Brain block, Khrew and Tral ranges of Forest Plantation Divisions in the South; by Harwan village in the west; and by Lidder Forest Division in the east. Monthly mean maximum temperatures ranged from 29 °C in summer to 6 °C in winter while as mean minimum temperatures ranged from 17 °C in summer to—3 °C in winter during our study. The minimum and maximum monthly precipitation ranged from 17 to 120 mm (Fig. 2). Vegetation of lower Dachigam is classified as Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest (Champion and Seth 1968). Climax communities are: riverine forest (1600–1800 m); Morus alba community (1700–1900 m); blue pine (Pinus griffithii) forest (1700–3000 m); Silver fir (Abies pindrow) forest (2300–3200 m); birch forest (2900–3700 m); tall evergreen shrub (3200–3400 m); dwarf evergreen shrub (3500–3700 m); and alpine pastures.Fig. 1


Seasonal population density and winter survival strategies of endangered Kashmir gray langur (Semnopithecus ajax) in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India.

Mir ZR, Noor A, Habib B, Veeraswami GG - Springerplus (2015)

Monthly mean maximum temperature (°C, dashed line), monthly mean minimum temperature (°C, solid line) and average monthly rainfall (mm, histogram) from 2011 to 2013 recorded at observatory of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, near Dachigam National Park
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4627992&req=5

Fig2: Monthly mean maximum temperature (°C, dashed line), monthly mean minimum temperature (°C, solid line) and average monthly rainfall (mm, histogram) from 2011 to 2013 recorded at observatory of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, near Dachigam National Park
Mentions: The study was conducted in Dachigam National Park (141 km2) located between 34°05′–34°12′N and 74°54′–75°09′E in the great Zanskar Range of Himalaya (Fig. 1). The park is the catchment area of the famous Dal lake and is divided into Lower Dachigam in the west and Upper Dachigam in the east. We selected lower Dachigam (~90 km2) as intensive study area as langur distribution is limited to this area of the park owing to its suitable altitudinal range. DNP is bounded by Dara block of the Sindh Forest Division in the north; by Brain block, Khrew and Tral ranges of Forest Plantation Divisions in the South; by Harwan village in the west; and by Lidder Forest Division in the east. Monthly mean maximum temperatures ranged from 29 °C in summer to 6 °C in winter while as mean minimum temperatures ranged from 17 °C in summer to—3 °C in winter during our study. The minimum and maximum monthly precipitation ranged from 17 to 120 mm (Fig. 2). Vegetation of lower Dachigam is classified as Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest (Champion and Seth 1968). Climax communities are: riverine forest (1600–1800 m); Morus alba community (1700–1900 m); blue pine (Pinus griffithii) forest (1700–3000 m); Silver fir (Abies pindrow) forest (2300–3200 m); birch forest (2900–3700 m); tall evergreen shrub (3200–3400 m); dwarf evergreen shrub (3500–3700 m); and alpine pastures.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Results suggested that the density of Kashmir gray langurs varied marginally across seasons, with the highest density recorded during winter and lowest during summer season.Langurs spent most of their time in carrying out various social activities (34.32 %) and least in resting (18.41 %).We conclude that langur density is low in DNP as compared to other plain areas of the Indian subcontinent and langurs in DNP have balanced their time budget and diet so as to increase their chances of survival in the unfavorably cold and food scarce winter conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, P.O Box No.18, Dehradun, 248001 India.

ABSTRACT
The population density of Kashmir gray langurs (Semnopithecus ajax) was studied in Dachigam National Park (DNP), Kashmir using distance sampling method. A total of 13 transects (1.5-2.5 km in length) were surveyed in the intensive study area (~90 km(2)) yielding 170 encounters in different seasons of the study period (2011-2013). Some aspects of behavior and feeding were also studied during the winter months (Dec-Feb) of 2012 and 2013 inside DNP. We used instantaneous scan sampling to collect behavioral data determining the time budget and diet of langurs in winter conditions. Results suggested that the density of Kashmir gray langurs varied marginally across seasons, with the highest density recorded during winter and lowest during summer season. Langurs spent most of their time in carrying out various social activities (34.32 %) and least in resting (18.41 %). Langurs fed upon 13 plant species (belonging to 12 families) and consumed a substantial proportion of bark (37.4 %) in their diet. We conclude that langur density is low in DNP as compared to other plain areas of the Indian subcontinent and langurs in DNP have balanced their time budget and diet so as to increase their chances of survival in the unfavorably cold and food scarce winter conditions.

No MeSH data available.