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Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

Dowling R, Ericson B, Caravanos J, Grigsby P, Amoyaw-Osei Y - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate.These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations.More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pure Earth, Formerly Blacksmith Institute, 475 Riverside Drive, Suite 860, New York, NY 10115, USA. Russell@pureearth.org.

ABSTRACT
Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regional map of Ghana. Source: MAGELLAN Geographics, 1992 [15].
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ijerph-12-13587-f001: Regional map of Ghana. Source: MAGELLAN Geographics, 1992 [15].

Mentions: Ghana is a lower middle-income West African country with a well-developed heterogeneous industrial base. The country is home to 25 million residents, the vast majority of whom live in a number of densely populated cities along the southern coast (see Figure 1). Chemical production and metals smelting and processing are among the largest contributors to the formal industrial economy, while informal car battery recycling, artisanal small-scale gold mining, and scrap recycling are industries of most interest in the informal sector.


Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

Dowling R, Ericson B, Caravanos J, Grigsby P, Amoyaw-Osei Y - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Regional map of Ghana. Source: MAGELLAN Geographics, 1992 [15].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4627050&req=5

ijerph-12-13587-f001: Regional map of Ghana. Source: MAGELLAN Geographics, 1992 [15].
Mentions: Ghana is a lower middle-income West African country with a well-developed heterogeneous industrial base. The country is home to 25 million residents, the vast majority of whom live in a number of densely populated cities along the southern coast (see Figure 1). Chemical production and metals smelting and processing are among the largest contributors to the formal industrial economy, while informal car battery recycling, artisanal small-scale gold mining, and scrap recycling are industries of most interest in the informal sector.

Bottom Line: We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate.These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations.More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pure Earth, Formerly Blacksmith Institute, 475 Riverside Drive, Suite 860, New York, NY 10115, USA. Russell@pureearth.org.

ABSTRACT
Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus