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Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

Oomen AG, Bleeker EA, Bos PM, van Broekhuizen F, Gottardo S, Groenewold M, Hristozov D, Hund-Rinke K, Irfan MA, Marcomini A, Peijnenburg WJ, Rasmussen K, Jiménez AS, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, van Tongeren M, Wiench K, Wohlleben W, Landsiedel R - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial.Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial.These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, Bilthoven 3720, The Netherlands. Agnes.Oomen@rivm.nl.

ABSTRACT
Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Possible applications of grouping and read-across of NMs (yellow boxes) in Phase 1 (orange box) and 2 (green box) of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS). These boxes are explained in more detail in the text in order of their numbering. The white boxes with green dotted outline represent input of data. HAR: High Aspect Ratio; RES: Relevant Exposure Scenario.
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ijerph-12-13415-f004: Possible applications of grouping and read-across of NMs (yellow boxes) in Phase 1 (orange box) and 2 (green box) of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS). These boxes are explained in more detail in the text in order of their numbering. The white boxes with green dotted outline represent input of data. HAR: High Aspect Ratio; RES: Relevant Exposure Scenario.

Mentions: Key properties that characterize a NM (adapted from Seller et al. [1]), arranged under headings from ITS-NANO [5], and coloured in accordance with Figure 2. These properties can affect exposure, toxicokinetics, fate and/or (eco) toxicological behaviour and thus the risk posed by NMs, and constitute the basic information needed (based on current knowledge) to implement the assessment in Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5. The information on chemical and physical identity (“What they are”) can be used for a first comparison of a certain NM to other NMs. Note that (i) some properties may not be relevant for all NMs, for example dustiness only applies to powders; (ii) some properties (for example dispersibility, dustiness) are system-dependent properties, and (iii) the key physicochemical properties are based on the present knowledge derived mostly from studying NMs that are metals, metal oxides or carbon based. Legend for the superscript numbers providing additional information on the properties: 1. Chemical composition comprises crystal structure; 2. Surface characteristics, which includes coating chemistry, functionalization (e.g., capping agents), surface charge (e.g., zeta potential); 3. Surface area, which includes porosity; 4. Solubility includes water equilibrium solubility and rate of dissolution in relevant media; 5. Hydrophobicity for NMs is dependent on e.g., van der Waals energy, Hamaker constant, zeta potential. Analytical determination of the hydrophobicity of NMs is still under development, e.g., sessile drop contact angle, dye adsorption; 6. Dispersibility refers to the relative number or mass of particles in a suspending medium, and relates to stability [1], aggregation and agglomeration in relevant media, and is dependent on e.g., van der Waals energy, Hamaker constant, zeta potential; 7. Physical hazards comprise explosiveness, flammability, and autoflammability.


Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

Oomen AG, Bleeker EA, Bos PM, van Broekhuizen F, Gottardo S, Groenewold M, Hristozov D, Hund-Rinke K, Irfan MA, Marcomini A, Peijnenburg WJ, Rasmussen K, Jiménez AS, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, van Tongeren M, Wiench K, Wohlleben W, Landsiedel R - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Possible applications of grouping and read-across of NMs (yellow boxes) in Phase 1 (orange box) and 2 (green box) of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS). These boxes are explained in more detail in the text in order of their numbering. The white boxes with green dotted outline represent input of data. HAR: High Aspect Ratio; RES: Relevant Exposure Scenario.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4627040&req=5

ijerph-12-13415-f004: Possible applications of grouping and read-across of NMs (yellow boxes) in Phase 1 (orange box) and 2 (green box) of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS). These boxes are explained in more detail in the text in order of their numbering. The white boxes with green dotted outline represent input of data. HAR: High Aspect Ratio; RES: Relevant Exposure Scenario.
Mentions: Key properties that characterize a NM (adapted from Seller et al. [1]), arranged under headings from ITS-NANO [5], and coloured in accordance with Figure 2. These properties can affect exposure, toxicokinetics, fate and/or (eco) toxicological behaviour and thus the risk posed by NMs, and constitute the basic information needed (based on current knowledge) to implement the assessment in Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5. The information on chemical and physical identity (“What they are”) can be used for a first comparison of a certain NM to other NMs. Note that (i) some properties may not be relevant for all NMs, for example dustiness only applies to powders; (ii) some properties (for example dispersibility, dustiness) are system-dependent properties, and (iii) the key physicochemical properties are based on the present knowledge derived mostly from studying NMs that are metals, metal oxides or carbon based. Legend for the superscript numbers providing additional information on the properties: 1. Chemical composition comprises crystal structure; 2. Surface characteristics, which includes coating chemistry, functionalization (e.g., capping agents), surface charge (e.g., zeta potential); 3. Surface area, which includes porosity; 4. Solubility includes water equilibrium solubility and rate of dissolution in relevant media; 5. Hydrophobicity for NMs is dependent on e.g., van der Waals energy, Hamaker constant, zeta potential. Analytical determination of the hydrophobicity of NMs is still under development, e.g., sessile drop contact angle, dye adsorption; 6. Dispersibility refers to the relative number or mass of particles in a suspending medium, and relates to stability [1], aggregation and agglomeration in relevant media, and is dependent on e.g., van der Waals energy, Hamaker constant, zeta potential; 7. Physical hazards comprise explosiveness, flammability, and autoflammability.

Bottom Line: At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial.Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial.These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, Bilthoven 3720, The Netherlands. Agnes.Oomen@rivm.nl.

ABSTRACT
Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus