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Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

Pereira da Fonseca TA, Pessôa R, Sanabani SS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens.One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene.Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Laboratory, Department of Pathology, LIM 03, Hospital das Clínicas (HC), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05403 000, Brazil. tairacanaugusto@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average composition of bacteria from all samples (inner area: Phylum, outer area: Family). Phyla and Families with more than 1% of their proportion were represented.
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ijerph-12-13276-f002: Average composition of bacteria from all samples (inner area: Phylum, outer area: Family). Phyla and Families with more than 1% of their proportion were represented.

Mentions: The Shannon index computed at 3% dissimilarity showed the lowest value of evenness (9574) for the sample R$ F2 compared to the all other samples that revealed the highest value of evenness. No statistically significant difference was found in the Choa1 and the Shannon index between the groups of currency note samples. The bacteria were from 58 phyla, 198 classes, 466 orders, 1193 families, and 3310 genera. Proteobacteria (43%) was the most abundant phylum with 28.8% contributed by Gamma-proteobacteria and 17.9% by Bacilli. The most abundant OTUs at phylum and family levels that accounted for more than 1% of all sequences are shown in Figure 2. Proteobacteria were commonly most abundant in each sample accounting for 37.7%, 34.1%, 44.3%, 50.6%, and 48.4% in banknotes R$ F2, F5, F10, F20, and F50, respectively (Figure 3). The six OTUs of the most abundance species associated with the five sample libraries were related to Staphylococcus saprophyticus (0.4%–2.8%), Staphylococcaceae_uc_s (0.7%–1.4%), Staphylococcus_uc (0.5%–1.1%), Moraxellaceae_uc_s (0.6%–1.7%), Enterobacteriaceae_uc_s (1.1%–0.8%), and Acinetobacter_uc (0.5%–1.3%) (Table 2).


Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

Pereira da Fonseca TA, Pessôa R, Sanabani SS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Average composition of bacteria from all samples (inner area: Phylum, outer area: Family). Phyla and Families with more than 1% of their proportion were represented.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4627030&req=5

ijerph-12-13276-f002: Average composition of bacteria from all samples (inner area: Phylum, outer area: Family). Phyla and Families with more than 1% of their proportion were represented.
Mentions: The Shannon index computed at 3% dissimilarity showed the lowest value of evenness (9574) for the sample R$ F2 compared to the all other samples that revealed the highest value of evenness. No statistically significant difference was found in the Choa1 and the Shannon index between the groups of currency note samples. The bacteria were from 58 phyla, 198 classes, 466 orders, 1193 families, and 3310 genera. Proteobacteria (43%) was the most abundant phylum with 28.8% contributed by Gamma-proteobacteria and 17.9% by Bacilli. The most abundant OTUs at phylum and family levels that accounted for more than 1% of all sequences are shown in Figure 2. Proteobacteria were commonly most abundant in each sample accounting for 37.7%, 34.1%, 44.3%, 50.6%, and 48.4% in banknotes R$ F2, F5, F10, F20, and F50, respectively (Figure 3). The six OTUs of the most abundance species associated with the five sample libraries were related to Staphylococcus saprophyticus (0.4%–2.8%), Staphylococcaceae_uc_s (0.7%–1.4%), Staphylococcus_uc (0.5%–1.1%), Moraxellaceae_uc_s (0.6%–1.7%), Enterobacteriaceae_uc_s (1.1%–0.8%), and Acinetobacter_uc (0.5%–1.3%) (Table 2).

Bottom Line: The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens.One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene.Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Laboratory, Department of Pathology, LIM 03, Hospital das Clínicas (HC), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05403 000, Brazil. tairacanaugusto@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus