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Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review.

Lam S, Nguyen-Viet H, Tuyet-Hanh TT, Nguyen-Mai H, Harper S - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits.Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health.These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph 50 Stone Rd. E., Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. lams@uoguelph.ca.

ABSTRACT
The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart of the selection of studies that examined the human health risks of wastewater, human excreta, and animal excreta management practices in Southeast Asia.
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ijerph-12-12863-f001: Flow chart of the selection of studies that examined the human health risks of wastewater, human excreta, and animal excreta management practices in Southeast Asia.

Mentions: The search strategy identified 1126 studies in PubMed, 1319 studies in CAB Direct, and 1282 in Web of Science, totaling 3727 articles. Duplications were removed, resulting in 2536 unique citations. After primary title and abstract screening, 183 were included as potentially relevant. After examination of the full text of these articles, 25 articles met the inclusion criteria. The hand-search of reference lists from the included articles resulted in the addition of 2 more articles. The inter-rater reliability for title/abstract article screen and full-text article screen was 0.61 and 0.72, respectively, indicating good agreement [22]. Titles and abstracts were most often considered not relevant because the study was not conducted in the defined geographic area (Figure 1). The majority of studies were conducted in Vietnam (n = 24) with other studies conducted in Cambodia (n = 1), Laos (n = 1), and Thailand (n = 1). The articles reviewed represented a variety of study designs including cross-sectional (n = 11) [23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33], cohort (n = 4) [34,35,36,37], case-control (n = 3) [38,39,40], sampling and testing (n = 4) [41,42,43,44], risk assessment (n = 2) [45,46], and qualitative research (n = 3) [3,7,47].


Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review.

Lam S, Nguyen-Viet H, Tuyet-Hanh TT, Nguyen-Mai H, Harper S - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Flow chart of the selection of studies that examined the human health risks of wastewater, human excreta, and animal excreta management practices in Southeast Asia.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4627004&req=5

ijerph-12-12863-f001: Flow chart of the selection of studies that examined the human health risks of wastewater, human excreta, and animal excreta management practices in Southeast Asia.
Mentions: The search strategy identified 1126 studies in PubMed, 1319 studies in CAB Direct, and 1282 in Web of Science, totaling 3727 articles. Duplications were removed, resulting in 2536 unique citations. After primary title and abstract screening, 183 were included as potentially relevant. After examination of the full text of these articles, 25 articles met the inclusion criteria. The hand-search of reference lists from the included articles resulted in the addition of 2 more articles. The inter-rater reliability for title/abstract article screen and full-text article screen was 0.61 and 0.72, respectively, indicating good agreement [22]. Titles and abstracts were most often considered not relevant because the study was not conducted in the defined geographic area (Figure 1). The majority of studies were conducted in Vietnam (n = 24) with other studies conducted in Cambodia (n = 1), Laos (n = 1), and Thailand (n = 1). The articles reviewed represented a variety of study designs including cross-sectional (n = 11) [23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33], cohort (n = 4) [34,35,36,37], case-control (n = 3) [38,39,40], sampling and testing (n = 4) [41,42,43,44], risk assessment (n = 2) [45,46], and qualitative research (n = 3) [3,7,47].

Bottom Line: Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits.Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health.These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph 50 Stone Rd. E., Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. lams@uoguelph.ca.

ABSTRACT
The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus