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Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

MacKay DG, Johnson LW, Graham ER, Burke DM - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words).However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory.We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. mackay@ucla.edu.

ABSTRACT
How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean proportion correct recognition memory (+SE) for consistent vs. inconsistent font colors (Experiment 1, left panel) and consistent vs. inconsistent locations (Experiment 2, right panel) as a function of age and word type.
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ijerph-12-12803-f007: Mean proportion correct recognition memory (+SE) for consistent vs. inconsistent font colors (Experiment 1, left panel) and consistent vs. inconsistent locations (Experiment 2, right panel) as a function of age and word type.

Mentions: Figure 7 (left panel) shows mean proportion correct color recognition as a function of word type and age group. A 2 (age: young vs. older) by 2 (word type: neutral vs. taboo) ANOVA on these data indicated taboo context-memory enhancement in both young and older adults: better color recognition for taboo (M = 0.58, SD = 0.26) than neutral words (M = 0.45, SD = 0.25), F(1, 78) = 17.07, MSE = 0.04, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.18. In addition, color recognition was marginally better for young (M = 0.56, SD = 0.27) than older adults (M = 0.48, SD = 0.24), F(1, 78) = 2.79, MSE = 0.09, p < 0.10, ηp2 = 0.03, with no age by word type interaction.


Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

MacKay DG, Johnson LW, Graham ER, Burke DM - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Mean proportion correct recognition memory (+SE) for consistent vs. inconsistent font colors (Experiment 1, left panel) and consistent vs. inconsistent locations (Experiment 2, right panel) as a function of age and word type.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4627001&req=5

ijerph-12-12803-f007: Mean proportion correct recognition memory (+SE) for consistent vs. inconsistent font colors (Experiment 1, left panel) and consistent vs. inconsistent locations (Experiment 2, right panel) as a function of age and word type.
Mentions: Figure 7 (left panel) shows mean proportion correct color recognition as a function of word type and age group. A 2 (age: young vs. older) by 2 (word type: neutral vs. taboo) ANOVA on these data indicated taboo context-memory enhancement in both young and older adults: better color recognition for taboo (M = 0.58, SD = 0.26) than neutral words (M = 0.45, SD = 0.25), F(1, 78) = 17.07, MSE = 0.04, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.18. In addition, color recognition was marginally better for young (M = 0.56, SD = 0.27) than older adults (M = 0.48, SD = 0.24), F(1, 78) = 2.79, MSE = 0.09, p < 0.10, ηp2 = 0.03, with no age by word type interaction.

Bottom Line: The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words).However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory.We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. mackay@ucla.edu.

ABSTRACT
How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus