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Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

MacKay DG, Johnson LW, Graham ER, Burke DM - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words).However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory.We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. mackay@ucla.edu.

ABSTRACT
How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean color-naming RTs (+SE) as a function of word type and consistency in Experiments 1 (left panel) vs. 2 (right panel).
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ijerph-12-12803-f006: Mean color-naming RTs (+SE) as a function of word type and consistency in Experiments 1 (left panel) vs. 2 (right panel).

Mentions: In addition, there were three significant interactions: repetition by word type, F(1, 78) = 33.96, MSE = 2035.54, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.30, repetition by color-consistency, F(1, 78) = 14.65, MSE = 1215.61, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.17, and word type by color-consistency, F(1, 78) = 4.29, MSE = 1033.26, p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.05. Figure 4 (left panel) shows the repetition by word type interaction: faster RTs for repetitions 4–6 than 1–3 for taboo words, but not neutral words. Figure 5 (left panel) shows the repetition by color-consistency interaction: a larger RT decrease between repetitions 1–3 and 4–6 for color-consistent than color-inconsistent words. Figure 6 (left panel) and Table 2 (last column) show the interaction between color-consistency and word type: faster RTs for color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, t(79) = 3.91, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.16, but not neutral words.


Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

MacKay DG, Johnson LW, Graham ER, Burke DM - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Mean color-naming RTs (+SE) as a function of word type and consistency in Experiments 1 (left panel) vs. 2 (right panel).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4627001&req=5

ijerph-12-12803-f006: Mean color-naming RTs (+SE) as a function of word type and consistency in Experiments 1 (left panel) vs. 2 (right panel).
Mentions: In addition, there were three significant interactions: repetition by word type, F(1, 78) = 33.96, MSE = 2035.54, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.30, repetition by color-consistency, F(1, 78) = 14.65, MSE = 1215.61, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.17, and word type by color-consistency, F(1, 78) = 4.29, MSE = 1033.26, p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.05. Figure 4 (left panel) shows the repetition by word type interaction: faster RTs for repetitions 4–6 than 1–3 for taboo words, but not neutral words. Figure 5 (left panel) shows the repetition by color-consistency interaction: a larger RT decrease between repetitions 1–3 and 4–6 for color-consistent than color-inconsistent words. Figure 6 (left panel) and Table 2 (last column) show the interaction between color-consistency and word type: faster RTs for color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, t(79) = 3.91, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.16, but not neutral words.

Bottom Line: The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words).However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory.We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. mackay@ucla.edu.

ABSTRACT
How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus