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Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola).

Mendes LA, Maria VL, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Amorim MJ - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO).Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag⁺ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO).Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal. jsf@bios.au.dk.

ABSTRACT
The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO₃ was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC₂₀ and EC₅₀ was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO₃ and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag⁺ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Survival (number of adults) and reproduction (number of juveniles) for Folsomia candida when exposed in LUFA 2.2 soil to (A) AgNO3 and (B) Ag NM300K. Results are expressed as average ± standard error (Av ± SE) (n = 4). *: Dunnett’s (p < 0.05) for differences between control and treatments. Lines represent the model fit to data.
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ijerph-12-12530-f001: Survival (number of adults) and reproduction (number of juveniles) for Folsomia candida when exposed in LUFA 2.2 soil to (A) AgNO3 and (B) Ag NM300K. Results are expressed as average ± standard error (Av ± SE) (n = 4). *: Dunnett’s (p < 0.05) for differences between control and treatments. Lines represent the model fit to data.

Mentions: The tests validity criteria were fulfilled, i.e., less than 20% mortality, >100 juveniles per replicate and the coefficient of variation < 30%. Results can be observed in Figure 1. For Ag NM300K no differences between control and control dispersant were observed (p > 0.05): Adult survival (average (AV) ± standard error (SE)): 10 ± 0; Juvenile Reproduction (AV±SE): 977 ± 50 and 1004 ± 47, respectively, hence data was modeled pooling both controls. A dose response effect was observed, with Ag NM300K being less toxic than AgNO3. The estimated ECx values can be seen in Table 1.


Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola).

Mendes LA, Maria VL, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Amorim MJ - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Survival (number of adults) and reproduction (number of juveniles) for Folsomia candida when exposed in LUFA 2.2 soil to (A) AgNO3 and (B) Ag NM300K. Results are expressed as average ± standard error (Av ± SE) (n = 4). *: Dunnett’s (p < 0.05) for differences between control and treatments. Lines represent the model fit to data.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4626984&req=5

ijerph-12-12530-f001: Survival (number of adults) and reproduction (number of juveniles) for Folsomia candida when exposed in LUFA 2.2 soil to (A) AgNO3 and (B) Ag NM300K. Results are expressed as average ± standard error (Av ± SE) (n = 4). *: Dunnett’s (p < 0.05) for differences between control and treatments. Lines represent the model fit to data.
Mentions: The tests validity criteria were fulfilled, i.e., less than 20% mortality, >100 juveniles per replicate and the coefficient of variation < 30%. Results can be observed in Figure 1. For Ag NM300K no differences between control and control dispersant were observed (p > 0.05): Adult survival (average (AV) ± standard error (SE)): 10 ± 0; Juvenile Reproduction (AV±SE): 977 ± 50 and 1004 ± 47, respectively, hence data was modeled pooling both controls. A dose response effect was observed, with Ag NM300K being less toxic than AgNO3. The estimated ECx values can be seen in Table 1.

Bottom Line: Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO).Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag⁺ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO).Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal. jsf@bios.au.dk.

ABSTRACT
The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO₃ was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC₂₀ and EC₅₀ was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO₃ and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag⁺ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus