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Simultaneous Degradation of Estrone, 17β-Estradiol and 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol in an Aqueous UV/H₂O₂ System.

Ma X, Zhang C, Deng J, Song Y, Li Q, Guo Y, Li C - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: UV/H₂O₂, which is an advanced treatment technology used to reduce multiple contaminants, is effective in potable water treatment.The results demonstrated that the degradation processes of all of the estrogens strongly fit first-order kinetics.E1 is predominantly reduced rapidly during the competition, while the presence of other estrogens has negligible impacts on E1; however, the degradation of E2 and EE2 is affected by the competitive background, not in relation to the types but to the existing amounts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. mayaner620@163.com.

ABSTRACT
UV/H₂O₂, which is an advanced treatment technology used to reduce multiple contaminants, is effective in potable water treatment. Simultaneous degradation effects and kinetics of three types of coexisting micropollutant estrogens (steroid estrogens, SEs), including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), in deionized water were studied. Experiments were carried out with ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation, together with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), in a cylinder photoreactor. The results demonstrated that the degradation processes of all of the estrogens strongly fit first-order kinetics. Single solutions of E1, E2 and EE2 showed higher degradation rates and removal efficiencies under the same reaction conditions compared with those under mixed conditions. Coexisting combinations of estrogens were put into the UV/H₂O₂ system to estimate their possible competitive influences on each other by examining their removal efficiencies and reaction rate constant, k, values. E1 is predominantly reduced rapidly during the competition, while the presence of other estrogens has negligible impacts on E1; however, the degradation of E2 and EE2 is affected by the competitive background, not in relation to the types but to the existing amounts. In the UV/H₂O₂ system, photocatalysis of the estrogens can stably produce an intermediate X, with the highest quantity coming from E1, while considerably lower quantities are obtained from E2 and EE2.

No MeSH data available.


Mass chromatogram and the probable structure of intermediate X.
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ijerph-12-12016-f006: Mass chromatogram and the probable structure of intermediate X.

Mentions: The characteristic ions of E1 are 268.8, 268.8, 268.8 and 338.9, while the ions for intermediate X are 268.9, 269.9, 364.5 and 314.7. Steroid estrogens are categorized as strong aromatic compounds due to the large energy consumption of their conjugated bonds, and the most frequent peak of the mass spectrogram is 268.9. Intermediate X has a similar chemical structure to that of E1 based on a comparison of the peak and its characteristic ions. Caupos et al. [26] reported that without dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water, E1 degradation by ultraviolet can generate one unique product, which is designated as P1, and it is held longer than E1 in HPLC analysis. Contractive analysis using gas chromatogram-mass spectrum (GC-MS), liquid chromatogram-mass spectrum (LC-MS), liquid chromatogram-mass spectrum-mass spectrum (LC-MS2), and LC-MS3 revealed that P1 is likely to be an isomer of E1, and the predicted structure is shown in Figure 6. Trudeau et al. [27] found that under the irradiation of UV-B, E1 generates a photodegradation derivative, which was identified as 13α-epimer lumi-estrone (lumiestrone) by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, as shown in Figure 6. Whidbey et al. [28] subsequently studied the conversion rate of E1 to LumiE1 based on the former results and concluded that LumiE1 had less estrogen effects than E1, partly because the structure change from E1 to LumiE1 was mostly a methyl transformation.


Simultaneous Degradation of Estrone, 17β-Estradiol and 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol in an Aqueous UV/H₂O₂ System.

Ma X, Zhang C, Deng J, Song Y, Li Q, Guo Y, Li C - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Mass chromatogram and the probable structure of intermediate X.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4626952&req=5

ijerph-12-12016-f006: Mass chromatogram and the probable structure of intermediate X.
Mentions: The characteristic ions of E1 are 268.8, 268.8, 268.8 and 338.9, while the ions for intermediate X are 268.9, 269.9, 364.5 and 314.7. Steroid estrogens are categorized as strong aromatic compounds due to the large energy consumption of their conjugated bonds, and the most frequent peak of the mass spectrogram is 268.9. Intermediate X has a similar chemical structure to that of E1 based on a comparison of the peak and its characteristic ions. Caupos et al. [26] reported that without dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water, E1 degradation by ultraviolet can generate one unique product, which is designated as P1, and it is held longer than E1 in HPLC analysis. Contractive analysis using gas chromatogram-mass spectrum (GC-MS), liquid chromatogram-mass spectrum (LC-MS), liquid chromatogram-mass spectrum-mass spectrum (LC-MS2), and LC-MS3 revealed that P1 is likely to be an isomer of E1, and the predicted structure is shown in Figure 6. Trudeau et al. [27] found that under the irradiation of UV-B, E1 generates a photodegradation derivative, which was identified as 13α-epimer lumi-estrone (lumiestrone) by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, as shown in Figure 6. Whidbey et al. [28] subsequently studied the conversion rate of E1 to LumiE1 based on the former results and concluded that LumiE1 had less estrogen effects than E1, partly because the structure change from E1 to LumiE1 was mostly a methyl transformation.

Bottom Line: UV/H₂O₂, which is an advanced treatment technology used to reduce multiple contaminants, is effective in potable water treatment.The results demonstrated that the degradation processes of all of the estrogens strongly fit first-order kinetics.E1 is predominantly reduced rapidly during the competition, while the presence of other estrogens has negligible impacts on E1; however, the degradation of E2 and EE2 is affected by the competitive background, not in relation to the types but to the existing amounts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. mayaner620@163.com.

ABSTRACT
UV/H₂O₂, which is an advanced treatment technology used to reduce multiple contaminants, is effective in potable water treatment. Simultaneous degradation effects and kinetics of three types of coexisting micropollutant estrogens (steroid estrogens, SEs), including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), in deionized water were studied. Experiments were carried out with ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation, together with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), in a cylinder photoreactor. The results demonstrated that the degradation processes of all of the estrogens strongly fit first-order kinetics. Single solutions of E1, E2 and EE2 showed higher degradation rates and removal efficiencies under the same reaction conditions compared with those under mixed conditions. Coexisting combinations of estrogens were put into the UV/H₂O₂ system to estimate their possible competitive influences on each other by examining their removal efficiencies and reaction rate constant, k, values. E1 is predominantly reduced rapidly during the competition, while the presence of other estrogens has negligible impacts on E1; however, the degradation of E2 and EE2 is affected by the competitive background, not in relation to the types but to the existing amounts. In the UV/H₂O₂ system, photocatalysis of the estrogens can stably produce an intermediate X, with the highest quantity coming from E1, while considerably lower quantities are obtained from E2 and EE2.

No MeSH data available.