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A Cluster Randomised Trial on the Impact of Integrating Early Infant HIV Diagnosis with the Expanded Programme on Immunization on Immunization and HIV Testing Rates in Rural Health Facilities in Southern Zambia.

Wang PC, Mwango A, Moberley S, Brockman BJ, Connor AL, Kalesha-Masumbu P, Mutembo S, Bweupe M, Chanda-Kapata P, Biemba G, Hamer DH, Chibuye B, McCarthy E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We assessed the integration of early infant HIV diagnosis with the expanded programme for immunization in a rural Zambian setting with the aim of determining whether infant and postpartum maternal HIV testing rates would increase without harming immunization uptake.The interventions resulted in a 16.6% [90% CI: -7%, 46%, P-value = 0.26] and 10% [90% CI: -10%, 36%, P-value = 0.43] greater change in average monthly infant DBS testing compared to control for the Simple and Comprehensive facilities respectively.We also found 15.76 (90% CI: 7.12, 24.41, P-value < 0.01) and 10.93 (90% CI: 1.52, 20.33, P-value = 0.06) additional total maternal re-tests over baseline for the Simple and Comprehensive Facilities respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IDinsight Zambia, IDinsight, Lusaka, Zambia.

ABSTRACT

Background: We assessed the integration of early infant HIV diagnosis with the expanded programme for immunization in a rural Zambian setting with the aim of determining whether infant and postpartum maternal HIV testing rates would increase without harming immunization uptake.

Methods: In an unblinded, location stratified, cluster randomised controlled trial, 60 facilities in Zambia's Southern Province were equally allocated to a control group, Simple Intervention group that received a sensitization meeting and the resupply of HIV testing commodities in the event of a stock-out, and a Comprehensive Intervention group that received the Simple Intervention as well as on-site operational support to facilitate the integration of HIV testing services with EPI.

Findings: The average change in number of first dose diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine (DPT1) provided per month, per facility was approximately 0.86 doses higher [90% confidence interval (CI) -1.40, 3.12] in Comprehensive Intervention facilities compared to the combined average change in the Simple Intervention and control facilities. The interventions resulted in a 16.6% [90% CI: -7%, 46%, P-value = 0.26] and 10% [90% CI: -10%, 36%, P-value = 0.43] greater change in average monthly infant DBS testing compared to control for the Simple and Comprehensive facilities respectively. We also found 15.76 (90% CI: 7.12, 24.41, P-value < 0.01) and 10.93 (90% CI: 1.52, 20.33, P-value = 0.06) additional total maternal re-tests over baseline for the Simple and Comprehensive Facilities respectively.

Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence to support Zambia's policy of integration of HIV testing and EPI services. Actions in line with the interventions, including HIV testing material supply reinforcement, can increase HIV testing rates without harming immunization uptake. In response, Zambia's Ministry of Health issued a memo to remind health facilities to provide HIV testing at under-five clinics and to include under-five HIV testing as part of district performance assessments.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov

Registration number: NCT02479659.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The average number of infant DBS testing during baseline and intervention periods per facility, by intervention.The blue bars represent the average number of infant DBS tests per facility in each study arm at baseline. The red bars represent the corresponding average number of infant DBS tests during the six month intervention period.
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pone.0141455.g002: The average number of infant DBS testing during baseline and intervention periods per facility, by intervention.The blue bars represent the average number of infant DBS tests per facility in each study arm at baseline. The red bars represent the corresponding average number of infant DBS tests during the six month intervention period.

Mentions: According to the multivariate linear regression using a log-transformed outcome, the Simple Intervention resulted in a 16.6% [90% CI: -7%, 46%, P-value = 0.26] greater change in average monthly testing compared to control, and the Comprehensive Intervention resulted in a 10% [90% CI: -10%, 36%, P-value = 0.43] greater change compared to control (Fig 2, Table 4).


A Cluster Randomised Trial on the Impact of Integrating Early Infant HIV Diagnosis with the Expanded Programme on Immunization on Immunization and HIV Testing Rates in Rural Health Facilities in Southern Zambia.

Wang PC, Mwango A, Moberley S, Brockman BJ, Connor AL, Kalesha-Masumbu P, Mutembo S, Bweupe M, Chanda-Kapata P, Biemba G, Hamer DH, Chibuye B, McCarthy E - PLoS ONE (2015)

The average number of infant DBS testing during baseline and intervention periods per facility, by intervention.The blue bars represent the average number of infant DBS tests per facility in each study arm at baseline. The red bars represent the corresponding average number of infant DBS tests during the six month intervention period.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4626083&req=5

pone.0141455.g002: The average number of infant DBS testing during baseline and intervention periods per facility, by intervention.The blue bars represent the average number of infant DBS tests per facility in each study arm at baseline. The red bars represent the corresponding average number of infant DBS tests during the six month intervention period.
Mentions: According to the multivariate linear regression using a log-transformed outcome, the Simple Intervention resulted in a 16.6% [90% CI: -7%, 46%, P-value = 0.26] greater change in average monthly testing compared to control, and the Comprehensive Intervention resulted in a 10% [90% CI: -10%, 36%, P-value = 0.43] greater change compared to control (Fig 2, Table 4).

Bottom Line: We assessed the integration of early infant HIV diagnosis with the expanded programme for immunization in a rural Zambian setting with the aim of determining whether infant and postpartum maternal HIV testing rates would increase without harming immunization uptake.The interventions resulted in a 16.6% [90% CI: -7%, 46%, P-value = 0.26] and 10% [90% CI: -10%, 36%, P-value = 0.43] greater change in average monthly infant DBS testing compared to control for the Simple and Comprehensive facilities respectively.We also found 15.76 (90% CI: 7.12, 24.41, P-value < 0.01) and 10.93 (90% CI: 1.52, 20.33, P-value = 0.06) additional total maternal re-tests over baseline for the Simple and Comprehensive Facilities respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IDinsight Zambia, IDinsight, Lusaka, Zambia.

ABSTRACT

Background: We assessed the integration of early infant HIV diagnosis with the expanded programme for immunization in a rural Zambian setting with the aim of determining whether infant and postpartum maternal HIV testing rates would increase without harming immunization uptake.

Methods: In an unblinded, location stratified, cluster randomised controlled trial, 60 facilities in Zambia's Southern Province were equally allocated to a control group, Simple Intervention group that received a sensitization meeting and the resupply of HIV testing commodities in the event of a stock-out, and a Comprehensive Intervention group that received the Simple Intervention as well as on-site operational support to facilitate the integration of HIV testing services with EPI.

Findings: The average change in number of first dose diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine (DPT1) provided per month, per facility was approximately 0.86 doses higher [90% confidence interval (CI) -1.40, 3.12] in Comprehensive Intervention facilities compared to the combined average change in the Simple Intervention and control facilities. The interventions resulted in a 16.6% [90% CI: -7%, 46%, P-value = 0.26] and 10% [90% CI: -10%, 36%, P-value = 0.43] greater change in average monthly infant DBS testing compared to control for the Simple and Comprehensive facilities respectively. We also found 15.76 (90% CI: 7.12, 24.41, P-value < 0.01) and 10.93 (90% CI: 1.52, 20.33, P-value = 0.06) additional total maternal re-tests over baseline for the Simple and Comprehensive Facilities respectively.

Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence to support Zambia's policy of integration of HIV testing and EPI services. Actions in line with the interventions, including HIV testing material supply reinforcement, can increase HIV testing rates without harming immunization uptake. In response, Zambia's Ministry of Health issued a memo to remind health facilities to provide HIV testing at under-five clinics and to include under-five HIV testing as part of district performance assessments.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov

Registration number: NCT02479659.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus