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Changes in Levels of Seminal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, Sperm DNA Integrity and Caspase-3 in Fertile Men after Scrotal Heat Stress.

Zhang MH, Zhang AD, Shi ZD, Wang LG, Qiu Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Seminal NO and NOS contents were determined by nitrate reduction method.The mean parameters of sperm concentration, motile and progressive motile sperm and normal morphological sperm were significantly decreased in groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months compared with those in groups of pre-SHS (P<0.001).The percentage of abnormal sperm by using the test of HOS showed a positively significant correlation with that of HOS/AB.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Birth Regulation and Control Technology of National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, Key Laboratory for Improving Birth Outcome Technique, Shandong Provincial Family Planning Institute of Science and Technology, 69 Yuhan Road, Jinan, Shandong, 250002, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study observes changes in levels of seminal nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), sperm DNA integrity, chromatin condensation and Caspase-3in adult healthy men after scrotal heat stress (SHS).

Methods: Exposure of the scrotum of 25 healthy male volunteers locally at 40-43°C SHS belt warming 40 min each day for successive 2 d per week. The course of SHS was continuously 3 months. Routine semen analysis, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, Aniline blue (AB) staining, HOS/AB and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d UDP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were carried out before, during and after SHS. Seminal NO and NOS contents were determined by nitrate reduction method. The activated Caspase-3 levels of spermatozoa and MIF in seminal plasma were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Statistical significance between mean values was determined using statistical ANOVA tests.

Results: The mean parameters of sperm concentration, motile and progressive motile sperm and normal morphological sperm were significantly decreased in groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months compared with those in groups of pre-SHS (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences of sperm DNA fragmentation, normal sperm membrane, and Caspase-3 activity as well as the level of NO, NOS and MIF in semen were observed between the groups before SHS and after SHS 3 months and the groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months (P<0.001). After three months of the SHS, various parameters recovered to the level before SHS. WBC in semen showed a positively significant correlation with the levels of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase-3 activity. The percentage of abnormal sperm by using the test of HOS showed a positively significant correlation with that of HOS/AB.

Conclusions: The continuously constant SHS can impact the semen quality and sperm DNA and chromatin, which may be contributed to the high level of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase-3 by SHS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), motile sperm, morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects.Concentration (× 106/ml), Motile sperm = grade (“a” + “b” + “c”)%, Progressive = grade (“a” + “b”)%, Normal morphological sperm (%), WBC (× 106/ml). From SPSS 13.0. Mean ± SEM.
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pone.0141320.g003: Sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), motile sperm, morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects.Concentration (× 106/ml), Motile sperm = grade (“a” + “b” + “c”)%, Progressive = grade (“a” + “b”)%, Normal morphological sperm (%), WBC (× 106/ml). From SPSS 13.0. Mean ± SEM.

Mentions: Table 1 shows the changes in the sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects. Before the SHS experiment, the range of sperm concentration was 24.27–167.53 × 106/ml, the progressive motility rate (a + b) was 30%-84%, and the rate of the normal morphological sperm was 13%-45%. One month after SHS, the parameters were significantly altered: sperm concentration less than15 ×106/ml in 6 subjects, and one dropped to 0; the rate of sperm progressive motility (a + b %) less than 20% in 7 subjects, the rate of morphologically normal sperm less than 5% in 9 subjects. Significant differences were observed in parameters of sperm concentration, motility, normal morphology and WBC between the pre-SHS group and the group during the SHS 1, 2 and 3 months (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the semen volume between the SHS 1- and 2-month group and the pre-SHS group (P>0.05). The low semen volume observed in the pre-SHS group and the 3-moth SHS group (P = 0.018). After three months of recovery (stopped SHS), the semen parameters gradually returned to normal levels. Fig 3 shows sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), motile sperm, morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects.


Changes in Levels of Seminal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, Sperm DNA Integrity and Caspase-3 in Fertile Men after Scrotal Heat Stress.

Zhang MH, Zhang AD, Shi ZD, Wang LG, Qiu Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), motile sperm, morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects.Concentration (× 106/ml), Motile sperm = grade (“a” + “b” + “c”)%, Progressive = grade (“a” + “b”)%, Normal morphological sperm (%), WBC (× 106/ml). From SPSS 13.0. Mean ± SEM.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4626044&req=5

pone.0141320.g003: Sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), motile sperm, morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects.Concentration (× 106/ml), Motile sperm = grade (“a” + “b” + “c”)%, Progressive = grade (“a” + “b”)%, Normal morphological sperm (%), WBC (× 106/ml). From SPSS 13.0. Mean ± SEM.
Mentions: Table 1 shows the changes in the sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects. Before the SHS experiment, the range of sperm concentration was 24.27–167.53 × 106/ml, the progressive motility rate (a + b) was 30%-84%, and the rate of the normal morphological sperm was 13%-45%. One month after SHS, the parameters were significantly altered: sperm concentration less than15 ×106/ml in 6 subjects, and one dropped to 0; the rate of sperm progressive motility (a + b %) less than 20% in 7 subjects, the rate of morphologically normal sperm less than 5% in 9 subjects. Significant differences were observed in parameters of sperm concentration, motility, normal morphology and WBC between the pre-SHS group and the group during the SHS 1, 2 and 3 months (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the semen volume between the SHS 1- and 2-month group and the pre-SHS group (P>0.05). The low semen volume observed in the pre-SHS group and the 3-moth SHS group (P = 0.018). After three months of recovery (stopped SHS), the semen parameters gradually returned to normal levels. Fig 3 shows sperm concentration, progressive motility (grade “a” + “b”), motile sperm, morphologically normal sperm and white blood cells (WBC) in semen, before, during and after SHS in 25 subjects.

Bottom Line: Seminal NO and NOS contents were determined by nitrate reduction method.The mean parameters of sperm concentration, motile and progressive motile sperm and normal morphological sperm were significantly decreased in groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months compared with those in groups of pre-SHS (P<0.001).The percentage of abnormal sperm by using the test of HOS showed a positively significant correlation with that of HOS/AB.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Birth Regulation and Control Technology of National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, Key Laboratory for Improving Birth Outcome Technique, Shandong Provincial Family Planning Institute of Science and Technology, 69 Yuhan Road, Jinan, Shandong, 250002, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study observes changes in levels of seminal nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), sperm DNA integrity, chromatin condensation and Caspase-3in adult healthy men after scrotal heat stress (SHS).

Methods: Exposure of the scrotum of 25 healthy male volunteers locally at 40-43°C SHS belt warming 40 min each day for successive 2 d per week. The course of SHS was continuously 3 months. Routine semen analysis, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, Aniline blue (AB) staining, HOS/AB and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d UDP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were carried out before, during and after SHS. Seminal NO and NOS contents were determined by nitrate reduction method. The activated Caspase-3 levels of spermatozoa and MIF in seminal plasma were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Statistical significance between mean values was determined using statistical ANOVA tests.

Results: The mean parameters of sperm concentration, motile and progressive motile sperm and normal morphological sperm were significantly decreased in groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months compared with those in groups of pre-SHS (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences of sperm DNA fragmentation, normal sperm membrane, and Caspase-3 activity as well as the level of NO, NOS and MIF in semen were observed between the groups before SHS and after SHS 3 months and the groups during SHS 1, 2 and 3 months (P<0.001). After three months of the SHS, various parameters recovered to the level before SHS. WBC in semen showed a positively significant correlation with the levels of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase-3 activity. The percentage of abnormal sperm by using the test of HOS showed a positively significant correlation with that of HOS/AB.

Conclusions: The continuously constant SHS can impact the semen quality and sperm DNA and chromatin, which may be contributed to the high level of NO, NOS, MIF and Caspase-3 by SHS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus