Limits...
Effects of exposure to facial expression variation in face learning and recognition.

Liu CH, Chen W, Ward J - Psychol Res (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that recognition performance after learning three emotional expressions had no improvement over learning a single emotional expression (Experiments 1 and 2).However, learning three emotional expressions improved recognition compared to learning a single neutral expression (Experiment 3).The transfer of expression training to a new type of expression is likely to depend on a relatively extensive level of training and a certain degree of variation across the types of expressions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB, UK. liuc@bournemouth.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Facial expression is a major source of image variation in face images. Linking numerous expressions to the same face can be a huge challenge for face learning and recognition. It remains largely unknown what level of exposure to this image variation is critical for expression-invariant face recognition. We examined this issue in a recognition memory task, where the number of facial expressions of each face being exposed during a training session was manipulated. Faces were either trained with multiple expressions or a single expression, and they were later tested in either the same or different expressions. We found that recognition performance after learning three emotional expressions had no improvement over learning a single emotional expression (Experiments 1 and 2). However, learning three emotional expressions improved recognition compared to learning a single neutral expression (Experiment 3). These findings reveal both the limitation and the benefit of multiple exposures to variations of emotional expression in achieving expression-invariant face recognition. The transfer of expression training to a new type of expression is likely to depend on a relatively extensive level of training and a certain degree of variation across the types of expressions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of a learn trial in the face-name presentation session. a Multiple-expression training in all three experiments: a face is shown in three randomly chosen categorically different expressions: Disgust, Surprise and Fear. b Single-expression training in Experiment 1: The same face is shown in a randomly chosen expression of three varying strengths. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were at levels of 3, 2, and 1, where 1 represents the weakest strength of the happy expression. c Single-expression training in Experiment 2: The level of emotional strengths of the three images had the identical strength of 4 of the sad expression. d Single-expression training in Experiment 3: All three images had the identical neutral expression. e An example of a test trial in Experiment 1. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were levels 3, 1, and 2 of the sad expression. In Experiments 2 and 3, the three test images were identical to one another
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4624836&req=5

Fig1: Examples of a learn trial in the face-name presentation session. a Multiple-expression training in all three experiments: a face is shown in three randomly chosen categorically different expressions: Disgust, Surprise and Fear. b Single-expression training in Experiment 1: The same face is shown in a randomly chosen expression of three varying strengths. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were at levels of 3, 2, and 1, where 1 represents the weakest strength of the happy expression. c Single-expression training in Experiment 2: The level of emotional strengths of the three images had the identical strength of 4 of the sad expression. d Single-expression training in Experiment 3: All three images had the identical neutral expression. e An example of a test trial in Experiment 1. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were levels 3, 1, and 2 of the sad expression. In Experiments 2 and 3, the three test images were identical to one another

Mentions: We used a 3D face database from Binghamton University (Yin, Wei, Sun, Wang and Rosato, 2006). It contained 100 faces without facial hair or spectacles. All faces were captured in seven different expressions: neutral, happy, sad, angry, fear, disgust and surprise. Each emotional expression was also captured in four levels of intensities. We used only the strongest intensity for all our conditions except for the baseline condition in Experiment 1 where a variety of intensity was used. A pool of 30 female Caucasian faces was chosen from the database. All faces were shown in a full frontal view. Images were scaled to 220 × 220 pixels, which measured 13.6 × 10.2º of visual angle at the viewing distance of 60 cm. All images were shown in black and white with 256 levels of grey, displayed against a uniform black background. An example face is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1


Effects of exposure to facial expression variation in face learning and recognition.

Liu CH, Chen W, Ward J - Psychol Res (2014)

Examples of a learn trial in the face-name presentation session. a Multiple-expression training in all three experiments: a face is shown in three randomly chosen categorically different expressions: Disgust, Surprise and Fear. b Single-expression training in Experiment 1: The same face is shown in a randomly chosen expression of three varying strengths. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were at levels of 3, 2, and 1, where 1 represents the weakest strength of the happy expression. c Single-expression training in Experiment 2: The level of emotional strengths of the three images had the identical strength of 4 of the sad expression. d Single-expression training in Experiment 3: All three images had the identical neutral expression. e An example of a test trial in Experiment 1. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were levels 3, 1, and 2 of the sad expression. In Experiments 2 and 3, the three test images were identical to one another
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4624836&req=5

Fig1: Examples of a learn trial in the face-name presentation session. a Multiple-expression training in all three experiments: a face is shown in three randomly chosen categorically different expressions: Disgust, Surprise and Fear. b Single-expression training in Experiment 1: The same face is shown in a randomly chosen expression of three varying strengths. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were at levels of 3, 2, and 1, where 1 represents the weakest strength of the happy expression. c Single-expression training in Experiment 2: The level of emotional strengths of the three images had the identical strength of 4 of the sad expression. d Single-expression training in Experiment 3: All three images had the identical neutral expression. e An example of a test trial in Experiment 1. The emotional strengths of the three images from the left to right were levels 3, 1, and 2 of the sad expression. In Experiments 2 and 3, the three test images were identical to one another
Mentions: We used a 3D face database from Binghamton University (Yin, Wei, Sun, Wang and Rosato, 2006). It contained 100 faces without facial hair or spectacles. All faces were captured in seven different expressions: neutral, happy, sad, angry, fear, disgust and surprise. Each emotional expression was also captured in four levels of intensities. We used only the strongest intensity for all our conditions except for the baseline condition in Experiment 1 where a variety of intensity was used. A pool of 30 female Caucasian faces was chosen from the database. All faces were shown in a full frontal view. Images were scaled to 220 × 220 pixels, which measured 13.6 × 10.2º of visual angle at the viewing distance of 60 cm. All images were shown in black and white with 256 levels of grey, displayed against a uniform black background. An example face is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: We found that recognition performance after learning three emotional expressions had no improvement over learning a single emotional expression (Experiments 1 and 2).However, learning three emotional expressions improved recognition compared to learning a single neutral expression (Experiment 3).The transfer of expression training to a new type of expression is likely to depend on a relatively extensive level of training and a certain degree of variation across the types of expressions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB, UK. liuc@bournemouth.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Facial expression is a major source of image variation in face images. Linking numerous expressions to the same face can be a huge challenge for face learning and recognition. It remains largely unknown what level of exposure to this image variation is critical for expression-invariant face recognition. We examined this issue in a recognition memory task, where the number of facial expressions of each face being exposed during a training session was manipulated. Faces were either trained with multiple expressions or a single expression, and they were later tested in either the same or different expressions. We found that recognition performance after learning three emotional expressions had no improvement over learning a single emotional expression (Experiments 1 and 2). However, learning three emotional expressions improved recognition compared to learning a single neutral expression (Experiment 3). These findings reveal both the limitation and the benefit of multiple exposures to variations of emotional expression in achieving expression-invariant face recognition. The transfer of expression training to a new type of expression is likely to depend on a relatively extensive level of training and a certain degree of variation across the types of expressions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus