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SEED: the six excesses (Liu Yin) evaluation and diagnosis scale.

Chiang PJ, Li TC, Chang CH, Chen LL, Lin JD, Su YC - Chin Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The items were based on infections and the six excesses (Liu Yin) etiological theory, i.e., Feng Xie (wind excess), Han Xie (coldness excess), Shu Xie (summer heat excess), Shi Xie (dampness excess), Zao Xie (dryness excess), and Huo Xie (fire excess).In total, 178 items with a mean or median rating of 7 or above on a scale of 1-9 from a panel of 32 experts were retained.The numbers of diagnostic items in the categories of Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes were 15, 22, 25, 37, 17, and 62, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan ; Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections such as common colds, influenza, acute upper respiratory infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and urinary tract infections are usually diagnosed according to patients' signs and symptoms. This study aims to develop a scale for the diagnosis of infectious diseases based on the six excesses (Liu Yin) etiological theory of Chinese medicine (CM) by the Delphi method.

Methods: A total of 200 CM-guided diagnostic items measuring signs and symptoms for infectious diseases were compiled from CM literature archives from the Han to Ming dynasties, CM textbooks in both China and Taiwan, and journal articles from the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. The items were based on infections and the six excesses (Liu Yin) etiological theory, i.e., Feng Xie (wind excess), Han Xie (coldness excess), Shu Xie (summer heat excess), Shi Xie (dampness excess), Zao Xie (dryness excess), and Huo Xie (fire excess). The items were further classified into the six excess syndromes and reviewed via a Delphi process to reach consensus among CM experts.

Results: In total, 178 items with a mean or median rating of 7 or above on a scale of 1-9 from a panel of 32 experts were retained. The numbers of diagnostic items in the categories of Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes were 15, 22, 25, 37, 17, and 62, respectively.

Conclusions: A CM-based six excesses (Liu Yin) evaluation and diagnosis (SEED) scale was developed for the evaluation and diagnosis of infectious diseases based only on signs and symptoms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Infectious diseases were classifiable in CM according to the Liu Yin (six excesses), Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire), and could be classified into Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes
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Fig1: Infectious diseases were classifiable in CM according to the Liu Yin (six excesses), Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire), and could be classified into Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes

Mentions: Chinese medicine (CM) can detect those infectious diseases mentioned above according to the etiological theory of Liu Yin (six excesses), i.e., Feng Xie (wind excess) representing varying temperature factors, Han Xie (coldness excess) representing falling temperature, Shu Xie (summer heat excess) representing rising temperature and humidity, Shi Xie (dampness excess) representing rising humidity, Zao Xie (dryness excess) representing falling humidity, and Huo Xie (fire excess) representing rising temperature [16, 17]. These Liu Yin (six excesses) collectively describe the circumstantial influences on Qi and Xue (blood), encompassing a number of CM diagnostic criteria checked by inquiry, inspection, olfaction, audition, percussion, palpation, and pulse examination (Fig. 1), and facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic decisions [18]. However, there has been no standard diagnostic assessment or measurement scales designed for infectious diseases based on the Liu Yin (six excesses) theory [19–28].Fig. 1


SEED: the six excesses (Liu Yin) evaluation and diagnosis scale.

Chiang PJ, Li TC, Chang CH, Chen LL, Lin JD, Su YC - Chin Med (2015)

Infectious diseases were classifiable in CM according to the Liu Yin (six excesses), Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire), and could be classified into Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4624590&req=5

Fig1: Infectious diseases were classifiable in CM according to the Liu Yin (six excesses), Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire), and could be classified into Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes
Mentions: Chinese medicine (CM) can detect those infectious diseases mentioned above according to the etiological theory of Liu Yin (six excesses), i.e., Feng Xie (wind excess) representing varying temperature factors, Han Xie (coldness excess) representing falling temperature, Shu Xie (summer heat excess) representing rising temperature and humidity, Shi Xie (dampness excess) representing rising humidity, Zao Xie (dryness excess) representing falling humidity, and Huo Xie (fire excess) representing rising temperature [16, 17]. These Liu Yin (six excesses) collectively describe the circumstantial influences on Qi and Xue (blood), encompassing a number of CM diagnostic criteria checked by inquiry, inspection, olfaction, audition, percussion, palpation, and pulse examination (Fig. 1), and facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic decisions [18]. However, there has been no standard diagnostic assessment or measurement scales designed for infectious diseases based on the Liu Yin (six excesses) theory [19–28].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The items were based on infections and the six excesses (Liu Yin) etiological theory, i.e., Feng Xie (wind excess), Han Xie (coldness excess), Shu Xie (summer heat excess), Shi Xie (dampness excess), Zao Xie (dryness excess), and Huo Xie (fire excess).In total, 178 items with a mean or median rating of 7 or above on a scale of 1-9 from a panel of 32 experts were retained.The numbers of diagnostic items in the categories of Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes were 15, 22, 25, 37, 17, and 62, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan ; Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections such as common colds, influenza, acute upper respiratory infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and urinary tract infections are usually diagnosed according to patients' signs and symptoms. This study aims to develop a scale for the diagnosis of infectious diseases based on the six excesses (Liu Yin) etiological theory of Chinese medicine (CM) by the Delphi method.

Methods: A total of 200 CM-guided diagnostic items measuring signs and symptoms for infectious diseases were compiled from CM literature archives from the Han to Ming dynasties, CM textbooks in both China and Taiwan, and journal articles from the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. The items were based on infections and the six excesses (Liu Yin) etiological theory, i.e., Feng Xie (wind excess), Han Xie (coldness excess), Shu Xie (summer heat excess), Shi Xie (dampness excess), Zao Xie (dryness excess), and Huo Xie (fire excess). The items were further classified into the six excess syndromes and reviewed via a Delphi process to reach consensus among CM experts.

Results: In total, 178 items with a mean or median rating of 7 or above on a scale of 1-9 from a panel of 32 experts were retained. The numbers of diagnostic items in the categories of Feng (wind), Han (coldness), Shu (summer heat), Shi (dampness), Zao (dryness), and Huo (fire) syndromes were 15, 22, 25, 37, 17, and 62, respectively.

Conclusions: A CM-based six excesses (Liu Yin) evaluation and diagnosis (SEED) scale was developed for the evaluation and diagnosis of infectious diseases based only on signs and symptoms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus