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Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Albescent Stages of 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis).

Li CF, Yao MZ, Ma CL, Ma JQ, Jin JQ, Chen L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A total of 65 differential metabolites were identified with a variable influence on projection greater than 1.The main differential metabolic pathways of the albescent stages compared with the re-greening stage included carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways.During the albescent stages, the sugar (fructofuranose), sugar derivative (glucose-1-phosphate) and epicatechin concentrations decreased, whereas the amino acid (mainly glycine, serine, tryptophan, citrulline, glutamine, proline, and valine) concentrations increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
'Anji Baicha' is an albino tea cultivar with white shoots at low air temperature and green shoots at high air temperature in early spring. The metabolite contents in the shoots dynamically vary with the color changes and with shoot development. To investigate the metabolomic variation during the albescent and re-greening stages, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis were applied to analyze the metabolite profiles in the different color stages during the development of 'Anji Baicha' leaves. The metabolite profiles of three albescent stages, including the yellow-green stage, the early albescent stage, and the late albescent stage, as well as the re-greening stage were distinguished using principal component analysis, revealing that the distinct developmental stages were likely responsible for the observed metabolic differences. Furthermore, a group classification and pairwise discrimination was revealed among the three albescent stages and re-greening stage by partial least squares discriminant analysis. A total of 65 differential metabolites were identified with a variable influence on projection greater than 1. The main differential metabolic pathways of the albescent stages compared with the re-greening stage included carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Compared with the re-greening stage, the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways were disturbed during the albescent stages. During the albescent stages, the sugar (fructofuranose), sugar derivative (glucose-1-phosphate) and epicatechin concentrations decreased, whereas the amino acid (mainly glycine, serine, tryptophan, citrulline, glutamine, proline, and valine) concentrations increased. These results reveal the changes in metabolic profiling that occur during the color changes associated with the development of the albino tea plant leaves.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

‘Anji Baicha’ leaves and chlorophyll concentration at four different stages.(A) ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages during the development. YG, yellow-green leaf; WI, slightly white leaf; WII, pale-white leaf; G, re-greening leaf. (B) Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and Chl a + b concentrations of ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages. The significance of differences in the YG, WI and WII stages compared with that in the G stage is indicated with * (P < 0.05; Student's t test) or ** (P < 0.01; Student's t test).
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pone.0139996.g001: ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves and chlorophyll concentration at four different stages.(A) ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages during the development. YG, yellow-green leaf; WI, slightly white leaf; WII, pale-white leaf; G, re-greening leaf. (B) Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and Chl a + b concentrations of ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages. The significance of differences in the YG, WI and WII stages compared with that in the G stage is indicated with * (P < 0.05; Student's t test) or ** (P < 0.01; Student's t test).

Mentions: The ‘Anji Baicha’ used in this research is an albino tea cultivar. The color of its new shoots is sensitive to the air temperature. In early spring, when the air temperature is less than 20°C, new shoots are yellow-green or yellow-white in color. As the air temperature increases, the new shoots gradually recover their green color. Based on the changes in leaf color as new shoots developed during the early spring, we divided the albescent process into three albescent stages, including the YG stage, the WI stage, and the WII stage, as well as the G stage (Fig 1A). The newly germinated, yellow-green single leaf and bud stage was defined as the YG stage. As this leaf and bud developed, the leaf became light green, and the edge of the leaf was yellow. This color pattern was defined as the WI stage. As the first leaf continued to develop, it became off-white, and only the leaf vein was green. This pattern was defined as the WII stage. When the air temperature exceeded 22°C, the leaves gradually turned green, similarly to other common tea cultivars; this color pattern was defined as the G stage. Table 1 showed the harvested time, air temperature and related stage in the previous research for each stage leaves. The chlorophyll a + b concentrations in the YG, WI and WII stage leaves were significantly lower than those in the G stage leaves (p < 0.05; Student's t test) (Fig 1B). Such reductions in the chlorophyll abundance might lead to color changes during leaf development from the albescent stage to the re-greening stage. Du et al. also found that the albino phenotype is strongly related to tea plant chlorophyll biosynthesis, which is inhibited at low air temperatures and recovers as the air temperature increases [1]. The reduced chlorophyll synthesis induces a complex perturbation of metabolite accumulation in the tea plant; for example, more amino acids and fewer polyphenols are found in albino leaves [3–5].


Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Albescent Stages of 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis).

Li CF, Yao MZ, Ma CL, Ma JQ, Jin JQ, Chen L - PLoS ONE (2015)

‘Anji Baicha’ leaves and chlorophyll concentration at four different stages.(A) ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages during the development. YG, yellow-green leaf; WI, slightly white leaf; WII, pale-white leaf; G, re-greening leaf. (B) Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and Chl a + b concentrations of ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages. The significance of differences in the YG, WI and WII stages compared with that in the G stage is indicated with * (P < 0.05; Student's t test) or ** (P < 0.01; Student's t test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4622044&req=5

pone.0139996.g001: ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves and chlorophyll concentration at four different stages.(A) ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages during the development. YG, yellow-green leaf; WI, slightly white leaf; WII, pale-white leaf; G, re-greening leaf. (B) Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and Chl a + b concentrations of ‘Anji Baicha’ leaves at four different stages. The significance of differences in the YG, WI and WII stages compared with that in the G stage is indicated with * (P < 0.05; Student's t test) or ** (P < 0.01; Student's t test).
Mentions: The ‘Anji Baicha’ used in this research is an albino tea cultivar. The color of its new shoots is sensitive to the air temperature. In early spring, when the air temperature is less than 20°C, new shoots are yellow-green or yellow-white in color. As the air temperature increases, the new shoots gradually recover their green color. Based on the changes in leaf color as new shoots developed during the early spring, we divided the albescent process into three albescent stages, including the YG stage, the WI stage, and the WII stage, as well as the G stage (Fig 1A). The newly germinated, yellow-green single leaf and bud stage was defined as the YG stage. As this leaf and bud developed, the leaf became light green, and the edge of the leaf was yellow. This color pattern was defined as the WI stage. As the first leaf continued to develop, it became off-white, and only the leaf vein was green. This pattern was defined as the WII stage. When the air temperature exceeded 22°C, the leaves gradually turned green, similarly to other common tea cultivars; this color pattern was defined as the G stage. Table 1 showed the harvested time, air temperature and related stage in the previous research for each stage leaves. The chlorophyll a + b concentrations in the YG, WI and WII stage leaves were significantly lower than those in the G stage leaves (p < 0.05; Student's t test) (Fig 1B). Such reductions in the chlorophyll abundance might lead to color changes during leaf development from the albescent stage to the re-greening stage. Du et al. also found that the albino phenotype is strongly related to tea plant chlorophyll biosynthesis, which is inhibited at low air temperatures and recovers as the air temperature increases [1]. The reduced chlorophyll synthesis induces a complex perturbation of metabolite accumulation in the tea plant; for example, more amino acids and fewer polyphenols are found in albino leaves [3–5].

Bottom Line: A total of 65 differential metabolites were identified with a variable influence on projection greater than 1.The main differential metabolic pathways of the albescent stages compared with the re-greening stage included carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways.During the albescent stages, the sugar (fructofuranose), sugar derivative (glucose-1-phosphate) and epicatechin concentrations decreased, whereas the amino acid (mainly glycine, serine, tryptophan, citrulline, glutamine, proline, and valine) concentrations increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
'Anji Baicha' is an albino tea cultivar with white shoots at low air temperature and green shoots at high air temperature in early spring. The metabolite contents in the shoots dynamically vary with the color changes and with shoot development. To investigate the metabolomic variation during the albescent and re-greening stages, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis were applied to analyze the metabolite profiles in the different color stages during the development of 'Anji Baicha' leaves. The metabolite profiles of three albescent stages, including the yellow-green stage, the early albescent stage, and the late albescent stage, as well as the re-greening stage were distinguished using principal component analysis, revealing that the distinct developmental stages were likely responsible for the observed metabolic differences. Furthermore, a group classification and pairwise discrimination was revealed among the three albescent stages and re-greening stage by partial least squares discriminant analysis. A total of 65 differential metabolites were identified with a variable influence on projection greater than 1. The main differential metabolic pathways of the albescent stages compared with the re-greening stage included carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Compared with the re-greening stage, the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways were disturbed during the albescent stages. During the albescent stages, the sugar (fructofuranose), sugar derivative (glucose-1-phosphate) and epicatechin concentrations decreased, whereas the amino acid (mainly glycine, serine, tryptophan, citrulline, glutamine, proline, and valine) concentrations increased. These results reveal the changes in metabolic profiling that occur during the color changes associated with the development of the albino tea plant leaves.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus