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Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

Kim CS, Park S, Chun Y, Song W, Kim HJ, Kim J - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas.The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group.These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Korean Medicine Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea. chskim@kiom.re.kr.

ABSTRACT
In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Retinal nitrotyrosine formation. Immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine, a nitro-oxidative stress maker, was performed on the retinas from the young control (A); old control (B); exercise (C) groups; and (D) negative control. The primary antibody was omitted. Scale bar = 50 μm. Nitrotyrosine was barely detectable in the young control mice, but the old control mice displayed enhanced nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in retinal tissues. Exercise significantly inhibited nitrotyrosine formation; and (E) the values in the bar graphs represent the means ± SE, n = 8. *p < 0.05 vs. the young control group; # p < 0.05 vs. the old control group.
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ijms-16-21008-f004: Retinal nitrotyrosine formation. Immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine, a nitro-oxidative stress maker, was performed on the retinas from the young control (A); old control (B); exercise (C) groups; and (D) negative control. The primary antibody was omitted. Scale bar = 50 μm. Nitrotyrosine was barely detectable in the young control mice, but the old control mice displayed enhanced nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in retinal tissues. Exercise significantly inhibited nitrotyrosine formation; and (E) the values in the bar graphs represent the means ± SE, n = 8. *p < 0.05 vs. the young control group; # p < 0.05 vs. the old control group.

Mentions: Immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine is shown in Figure 4. Weak immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine was observed in the young control retinas, but a significant increase in nitrotyrosine staining intensity was widely detected in all retinal cell layers of the old control mice. Treadmill exercise suppressed nitrotyrosine expression compared to the old control group. In quantitative analysis, the exercised mice had significantly reduced retinal nitrotyrosine formation (1.4 ± 0.8) compared to the old control group (3.1 ± 1.4, p < 0.05).


Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

Kim CS, Park S, Chun Y, Song W, Kim HJ, Kim J - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Retinal nitrotyrosine formation. Immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine, a nitro-oxidative stress maker, was performed on the retinas from the young control (A); old control (B); exercise (C) groups; and (D) negative control. The primary antibody was omitted. Scale bar = 50 μm. Nitrotyrosine was barely detectable in the young control mice, but the old control mice displayed enhanced nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in retinal tissues. Exercise significantly inhibited nitrotyrosine formation; and (E) the values in the bar graphs represent the means ± SE, n = 8. *p < 0.05 vs. the young control group; # p < 0.05 vs. the old control group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4613238&req=5

ijms-16-21008-f004: Retinal nitrotyrosine formation. Immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine, a nitro-oxidative stress maker, was performed on the retinas from the young control (A); old control (B); exercise (C) groups; and (D) negative control. The primary antibody was omitted. Scale bar = 50 μm. Nitrotyrosine was barely detectable in the young control mice, but the old control mice displayed enhanced nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in retinal tissues. Exercise significantly inhibited nitrotyrosine formation; and (E) the values in the bar graphs represent the means ± SE, n = 8. *p < 0.05 vs. the young control group; # p < 0.05 vs. the old control group.
Mentions: Immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine is shown in Figure 4. Weak immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine was observed in the young control retinas, but a significant increase in nitrotyrosine staining intensity was widely detected in all retinal cell layers of the old control mice. Treadmill exercise suppressed nitrotyrosine expression compared to the old control group. In quantitative analysis, the exercised mice had significantly reduced retinal nitrotyrosine formation (1.4 ± 0.8) compared to the old control group (3.1 ± 1.4, p < 0.05).

Bottom Line: However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas.The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group.These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Korean Medicine Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea. chskim@kiom.re.kr.

ABSTRACT
In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus